ADHD and glutamate


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(Updated 7/21/04)

MacMaster FP, Carrey N, Sparkes S, Kusumakar V.
Proton spectroscopy in medication-free pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Biol Psychiatry 2003 Jan 15;53(2):184-7
"The frontal-striatal pathway has been previously implicated in the neuropathology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Hence, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to examine metabolite levels in the prefrontal cortex of children with ADHD.Nine age- and gender-matched case-control pairs were examined, ages 7 to 16 years. A long-echo (1)H-MRS scan was acquired from the right prefrontal cortex and left striatum in all subjects. Compounds that can be visualized with (1)H-MRS include N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), glutamate/glutamine/gamma-aminobutyric acid (Glx), creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr), and choline compounds (Cho).Frontal-striatal glutamatergic resonances were elevated in the children with ADHD as compared to healthy control subjects. No differences were noted in NAA, Cho, or Cr metabolite ratios.These findings suggest that frontal-striatal Glx resonances may be increased in children with ADHD in comparison with healthy control subjects." [Abstract]

Courvoisie H, Hooper SR, Fine C, Kwock L, Castillo M.
Neurometabolic functioning and neuropsychological correlates in children with ADHD-H: preliminary findings.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004 Winter;16(1):63-9.
"Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and neuropsychological testing were conducted on 8 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-H), with no learning disabilities or comorbidities and 8 controls. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed increased Glutamate/Glutamine in both frontal areas, and increased N-acetyl aspartate and Choline in the right frontal area of the ADHD-H subjects. Neuropsychological testing revealed few within- and between-group differences. Findings related to frontal lobe dysfunction in ADHD-H subjects were noted. N-acetylasparte/creatine (NAA/Creatine) in the right frontal region, and myoinositol/creatine (Myo inositol/Creatine) in the right and left frontal regions appear to be highly associated with the regulation of sensorimotor, language, and memory and learning functioning in children with ADHD-H." [Abstract]

Carrey N, MacMaster FP, Sparkes SJ, Khan SC, Kusumakar V.
Glutamatergic changes with treatment in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary case series.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2002 Winter;12(4):331-6
"Magnetic resonance spectroscopy, a noninvasive neuroimaging method, is a technique with the potential to measure in vivo neurochemical changes to different medication treatments. Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improved in two children treated with methylphenidate and two children treated with atomoxetine, for whom pre- and posttreatment proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy examinations were obtained to assess the relation between the neurochemical profiles in the striatum and prefrontal cortex among symptom severity and response to treatment. In the striatum, a striking decrease in the glutamate/creatine ratio (mean change 56.1%) was observed between 14 and 18 weeks of therapy in all four children with ADHD. In the prefrontal cortex, however, changes in the glutamate/creatine ratio were noted only in subjects receiving atomoxetine, not in those receiving methylphenidate. These data suggest that in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurement has the potential to assess response to psychopharmacological treatment in children with ADHD." [Abstract]

Carrey N, MacMaster FP, Fogel J, Sparkes S, Waschbusch D, Sullivan S, Schmidt M.
Metabolite changes resulting from treatment in children with ADHD: a 1H-MRS study.
Clin Neuropharmacol. 2003 Jul-Aug; 26(4): 218-21.
"Previously the authors noted an increase in glutamatergic tone in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with age- and gender-matched control subjects. In this study they examine the effect of treatment on metabolite concentrations. Fourteen children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were investigated medication free and after treatment, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the prefrontal cortex and striatum, metabolite peaks of N-acetyl-aspartate, glutamate/glutamine/gamma-aminobutyric acid, creatine/phosphocreatine, and choline compounds were measured, and ratios of the peaks were calculated and compared before and after treatment. The glutamate/glutamine/gamma-aminobutyric acid-to-creatine/phosphocreatine ratio decreased significantly in the striatum. No other metabolites demonstrated any change in response to medication. These findings suggest that glutamate may be involved in treatment response in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, especially in the striatum." [Abstract]

Kodama T, Honda Y, Watanabe M, Hikosaka K.
Release of neurotransmitters in the monkey frontal cortex is related to level of attention.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2002 Jun;56(3):341-2
"Attention is reported to be maintained by monoamines, acetylcholine and amino acids systems. Changes in the releases of these neurotransmitters during the three stages comprising quiet wake (QW) and two arousal states (AW), which are activated from different sources, were investigated. Norepinephrine releases during AW were significantly higher than that during QW. Conversely, the levels of acetylcholine and serotonin that were released did not change significantly among these three stages. The interesting observation was the dissociation of the increase between glutamate and dopamine releases in the two AW states. The results indicate that attention level is related to the amount of norepinephrine release, and that attention quality is related to the interaction between dopamine and glutamate releases." [Abstract]

Diaz Heijtz R, Kolb B, Forssberg H.
Can a therapeutic dose of amphetamine during pre-adolescence modify the pattern of synaptic organization in the brain?
Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Dec; 18(12): 3394-9.
"Stimulant drugs such as amphetamine have, for many decades, been the drugs of choice in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. However, little is known about their therapeutic mechanisms or about the consequences of their long-term exposure. In the present study we investigated whether repeated exposure of a low dose of amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg) to juvenile rats could induce long-term morphological alterations in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, to assess possible behavioural consequences of prolonged exposure to this drug, we examined whether changes in the motor response to various dopamine agonists occurred after this treatment. We found that this dose of amphetamine promotes plasma concentrations of amphetamine sulphate in juvenile rats to levels corresponding to the clinical range used for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg; s.c.) was administered twice daily during postnatal days 22-34, and then the brains of the animals were evaluated 2 weeks later. This treatment produced an increase in dendritic length and branches of pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex, but not in the nucleus accumbens. These changes were associated with an increase in the expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, a highly abundant signalling protein in the postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses. Interestingly, amphetamine pre-treatment did not alter the motor response to various dopamine agonists, including amphetamine. These data suggest that clinical doses of stimulant drugs may be acting as a trophic support at the glutamatergic synapses, thereby enhancing dopamine-glutamate interactions in the prefrontal cortex." [Abstract]

Crowder JM, Bradford HF.
Inhibitory effects of noradrenaline and dopamine on calcium influx and neurotransmitter glutamate release in mammalian brain slices.
Eur J Pharmacol 1987 Nov 17;143(3):343-52
"Noradrenaline and dopamine (0.1-100 microM) inhibited 45Ca2+ uptake and glutamate release induced by veratrine (25 microM) in cortical and striatal slices but were without effect when added alone. Each parameter was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by noradrenaline in cortical slices (IC50 = 0.05 microM) and by dopamine in striatal slices (IC50 = 0.08 microM). Noradrenaline (0.01-100 microM) was without influence on veratrine-induced 45Ca2+ influx or glutamate release in the striatal preparation, and likewise dopamine was inactive in cortex slices. The use of adrenoceptor antagonists suggests that the action of noradrenaline is mediated by the alpha 2-receptor which is thought to be adenylate cyclase linked. Dopamine appeared to be acting through the D-2 receptor." [Abstract]

Kamisaki Y, Hamahashi T, Okada CM, Itoh T.
Clonidine inhibition of potassium-evoked release of glutamate and aspartate from rat cortical synaptosomes.
Brain Res 1991 Dec 24;568(1-2):193-8
"Release of endogenous glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been investigated using synaptosomes prepared from rat cerebral cortex. Exposure in superfusion to a depolarizing concentration of KCl (30 mM) evoked 3-, 2- and 2-fold increases in Glu, Asp and GABA release, respectively. More than 70% of Glu and Asp overflow were calcium-dependent, although 67% of the GABA overflow was calcium-independent. Clonidine inhibited the K(+)-evoked overflow of Glu and Asp in a concentration-dependent manner, but the GABA overflow was not inhibited. Clonidine inhibited K(+)-evoked Glu and Asp overflow to 40 and 30% of the control with a potency (IC50) of 11 and 36 nM, respectively. Similarly, norepinephrine inhibited the K(+)-evoked overflow of Glu and Asp, although phenylephrine and isoproterenol showed no effect. Rauwolscine, yohimbine and idazoxan counteracted the effects of clonidine on Glu and Asp overflow. The data suggest that the depolarization-evoked overflow of excitatory amino acids is regulated in an inhibitory fashion by alpha 2 adrenoceptors, which are located on the nerve terminals of Glu and Asp neurons in rat cortex." [Abstract]

Yamamoto BK, Davy S.
Dopaminergic modulation of glutamate release in striatum as measured by microdialysis.
J Neurochem 1992 May;58(5):1736-42
"Glutamate and aspartate are the primary neurotransmitters of projections from motor and premotor cortices to the striatum. Release of glutamate may be modulated by dopamine receptors located on corticostriatal terminals. The present study used microdialysis to investigate the dopaminergic modulation of in vivo striatal glutamate and aspartate release in the striatum of awake-behaving rats. Local perfusion with a depolarizing concentration of K+ through a dialysis probe into the rat striatum produced a significant increase in the release of glutamate, aspartate, and taurine. The D2 agonist LY171555 blocked the K(+)-induced release of glutamate and aspartate, but not taurine, in a concentration-dependent manner. The D1 agonist SKF 38393 did not alter K(+)-induced release of glutamate and taurine, but did significantly decrease aspartate release. Neither agonist had any effect on basal amino acid release. The D2 antagonist (-)-sulpiride reversed the inhibitory effects of LY 171555 on K(+)-induced glutamate release. These results provide in vivo evidence for a functional interaction between dopamine, the D2 receptor, and striatal glutamate release." [Abstract]

Peris J, Dwoskin LP, Zahniser NR.
Biphasic modulation of evoked [3H]D-aspartate release by D-2 dopamine receptors in rat striatal slices.
Synapse 1988;2(4):450-6
"It has been hypothesized that dopamine (DA) inhibits glutamate release from corticostriatal fibers via presynaptically located D-2 DA receptors although the evidence presented in the literature has not been conclusive. In the present experiments, the effect of D-2 receptor ligands on K+-stimulated tritium release from rat striatal slices preloaded with the nonmetabolizable glutamate analog [3H]D-aspartate ([3H]ASP was measured. The D-2 receptor antagonist S-sulpiride increased stimulated [3H]ASP release by 75% (EC50 value = 240 nM) and the biologically less-active isomer R-sulpiride, although equally effective, was tenfold less potent. The D-2 receptor agonists pergolide and (+)-4-propyl-9-hydroxynapthoxazine (+PHNO) inhibited [3H]ASP release at nM concentrations; however, this effect was small (20%). This low efficacy of the exogenous agonists was apparently due to competition by high concentrations of endogenous DA since the effect of pergolide was increased in rats whose striatal DA levels were decreased by 97%. These data support the hypothesis that D-2 DA receptors modulate [3H]ASP release in an inhibitory fashion. However, when the agonists were tested at lower concentrations, [3H]ASP release was increased significantly by 20% in control rats and 60% in DA-depleted rats. Both the facilitory and inhibitory effects of pergolide were blocked by 10 microM S-sulpiride, suggesting D-2 receptor mediation. In addition, the facilitory effect of pergolide was blocked by tetrodotoxin (TTX) and by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline, implying mediation of this D-2 effect by an inhibitory GABAergic interneuron. The inhibitory effect of pergolide was decreased by the muscarinic antagonist atropine." [Abstract]

Russell VA.
Increased AMPA receptor function in slices containing the prefrontal cortex of spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Metab Brain Dis 2001 Dec;16(3-4):143-9
"Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are used as a genetic model for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), since they have behavioral characteristics that mimic the major symptoms of ADHD. We have previously shown that dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems are altered in the prefrontal cortex of SHR compared to normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats. We also showed that neural circuits that use glutamate as a neurotransmitter increased norepinephrine release from rat prefrontal cortex slices and that glutamate caused significantly greater release of norepinephrine from prefrontal cortex slices of SHR than from those of WKY. The effect of glutamate did not appear to be mediated by NMDA receptors, since NMDA did not exert any effect on norepinephrine release and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 did not reduce the effect of glutamate. In this investigation we show that the stimulatory effect of glutamate is greater in SHR than in WKY and that the effect can be antagonised by the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). The results suggest that glutamatergic neuron terminals in rat prefrontal cortex establish synaptic contacts with noradrenergic terminals to enhance norepinephrine release by activation of AMPA receptors and that this enhancement is amplified in SHR." [Abstract]

Radisavljevic Z, Cepeda C, Peacock W, Buchwald NA, Levine MS.
Norepinephrine modulates excitatory amino acid-induced responses in developing human and adult rat cerebral cortex.
Int J Dev Neurosci 1994 Jun;12(4):353-61
"These experiments were designed to assess the ability of norepinephrine and its beta-receptor agonist, isoproterenol, to modulate responses induced by activation of excitatory amino acid receptors in brain slices obtained from developing human cortex or adult rat cortex. Human cortical slices were obtained from children undergoing surgery for intractable epilepsy (9 months to 10 yr of age). For comparison, slices were also obtained from rats (2-3 months of age). Iontophoretic application of glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) produced excitatory responses consisting of membrane depolarizations accompanied by action potentials. Iontophoretic or bath application of norepinephrine or isoproterenol enhanced responses evoked by glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate. Depolarizations occurred with shorter latencies and their amplitudes increased. Action potential frequency was also increased and responses were of longer duration. In contrast, norepinephrine or isoproterenol had no effect on responses induced by AMPA. The enhancement of responses induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate or glutamate was antagonized by the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol. Similar findings were obtained from neurons in humans or rats. These results suggest that norepinephrine, possibly via beta-receptors, potentiates responses mediated by glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors without affecting those mediated by AMPA receptors. These effects were observed at all ages studied, indicating that the ability of norepinephrine to modulate excitatory neuronal transmission is well developed in human cortex by 9 months of age." [Abstract]

Gu Q.
Neuromodulatory transmitter systems in the cortex and their role in cortical plasticity.
Neuroscience. 2002;111(4):815-35.
Cortical neuromodulatory transmitter systems refer to those classical neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and monoamines, which share a number of common features. For instance, their centers are located in subcortical regions and send long projection axons to innervate the cortex. The same transmitter can either excite or inhibit cortical neurons depending on the composition of postsynaptic transmitter receptor subtypes. The overall functions of these transmitters are believed to serve as chemical bases of arousal, attention and motivation. The anatomy and physiology of neuromodulatory transmitter systems and their innervations in the cerebral cortex have been well characterized. In addition, ample evidence is available indicating that neuromodulatory transmitters also play roles in development and plasticity of the cortex. In this article, the anatomical organization and physiological function of each of the following neuromodulatory transmitters, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, and histamine, in the cortex will be described. The involvement of these transmitters in cortical plasticity will then be discussed. Available data suggest that neuromodulatory transmitters can modulate the excitability of cortical neurons, enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of cortical responses, and modify the threshold for activity-dependent synaptic modifications. Synaptic transmissions of these neuromodulatory transmitters are mediated via numerous subtype receptors, which are linked to multiple signal transduction mechanisms. Among the neuromodulatory transmitter receptor subtypes, cholinergic M(1), noradrenergic beta(1) and serotonergic 5-HT(2C) receptors appear to be more important than other receptor subtypes for cortical plasticity. In general, the contribution of neuromodulatory transmitter systems to cortical plasticity may be made through a facilitation of NMDA receptor-gated processes.

Bymaster FP, Katner JS, Nelson DL, Hemrick-Luecke SK, Threlkeld PG, Heiligenstein JH, Morin SM, Gehlert DR, Perry KW.
Atomoxetine increases extracellular levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in prefrontal cortex of rat: a potential mechanism for efficacy in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Neuropsychopharmacology 2002 Nov;27(5):699-711
"The selective norepinephrine (NE) transporter inhibitor atomoxetine (formerly called tomoxetine or LY139603) has been shown to alleviate symptoms in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We investigated the mechanism of action of atomoxetine in ADHD by evaluating the interaction of atomoxetine with monoamine transporters, the effects on extracellular levels of monoamines, and the expression of the neuronal activity marker Fos in brain regions. Atomoxetine inhibited binding of radioligands to clonal cell lines transfected with human NE, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) transporters with dissociation constants (K(i)) values of 5, 77 and 1451 nM, respectively, demonstrating selectivity for NE transporters. In microdialysis studies, atomoxetine increased extracellular (EX) levels of NE in prefrontal cortex (PFC) 3-fold, but did not alter 5-HT(EX) levels. Atomoxetine also increased DA(EX) concentrations in PFC 3-fold, but did not alter DA(EX) in striatum or nucleus accumbens. In contrast, the psychostimulant methylphenidate, which is used in ADHD therapy, increased NE(EX) and DA(EX) equally in PFC, but also increased DA(EX) in the striatum and nucleus accumbens to the same level. The expression of the neuronal activity marker Fos was increased 3.7-fold in PFC by atomoxetine administration, but was not increased in the striatum or nucleus accumbens, consistent with the regional distribution of increased DA(EX). We hypothesize that the atomoxetine-induced increase of catecholamines in PFC, a region involved in attention and memory, mediates the therapeutic effects of atomoxetine in ADHD. In contrast to methylphenidate, atomoxetine did not increase DA in striatum or nucleus accumbens, suggesting it would not have motoric or drug abuse liabilities." [Abstract]

Franowicz JS, Kessler LE, Borja CM, Kobilka BK, Limbird LE, Arnsten AF.
Mutation of the alpha2A-adrenoceptor impairs working memory performance and annuls cognitive enhancement by guanfacine.
J Neurosci 2002 Oct 1;22(19):8771-7
"Norepinephrine strengthens the working memory, behavioral inhibition, and attentional functions of the prefrontal cortex through actions at postsynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptors (alpha2-AR). The alpha2-AR agonist guanfacine enhances prefrontal cortical functions in rats, monkeys, and human beings and ameliorates prefrontal cortical deficits in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The present study examined the subtype of alpha2-AR underlying these beneficial effects. Because there are no selective alpha2A-AR, alpha2B-AR, or alpha2C-AR agonists or antagonists, genetically altered mice were used to identify the molecular target of the action of guanfacine. Mice with a point mutation of the alpha2A-AR, which serves as a functional knock-out, were compared with wild-type animals and with previously published studies of alpha2C-AR knock-out mice (Tanila et al., 1999). Mice were adapted to handling on a T maze and trained on either a spatial delayed alternation task that is sensitive to prefrontal cortical damage or a spatial discrimination control task with similar motor and motivational demands but no dependence on prefrontal cortex. The effects of guanfacine on performance of the delayed alternation task were assessed in additional groups of wild-type versus alpha2A-AR mutant mice. We observed that functional loss of the alpha2A-AR subtype, unlike knock-out of the alpha2C-AR subtype, weakened performance of the prefrontal cortical task without affecting learning and resulted in loss of the beneficial response to guanfacine. These data demonstrate the importance of alpha2A-AR subtype stimulation for the cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex and identify the molecular substrate for guanfacine and novel therapeutic interventions." [Abstract]

Golembiowska K, Zylewska A.
Effect of antidepressant drugs on veratridine-evoked glutamate and aspartate release in rat prefrontal cortex.
Pol J Pharmacol 1999 Jan-Feb;51(1):63-70
"In vivo microdialysis in conscious rats was used to evaluate the effect of local application, through a microdialysis probe, of desipramine (DMI), imipramine and citalopram (CIT), on veratridine-evoked glutamate and aspartate release in rat prefrontal cortex (PFCx). All antidepressant drugs (ADs), given at a concentration of 0.1 mM, significantly inhibited glutamate release, while aspartate release was affected only by DMI and CIT. In contrast, local administration of ADs markedly potentiated veratridine-evoked dopamine and noradrenaline release. Perfusion of clonidine, quinpirole and 1-[3-(trifluoro-methyl)phenyl]-piperazine (TFMPP) at 0.1 mM concentration also diminished, evoked release of glutamate and aspartate. The regulation of amino acid release in rat PFCx may be achieved by direct effect of ADs on Na+ channels or indirectly, by involvement of D2/D3, alpha 2 or 5-HT1B heteroceptors activated by the increased level of monoamines in response to the blockade of respective transporters." [Abstract]

Harkin A, Nowak G, Paul IA.
Noradrenergic lesion antagonizes desipramine-induced adaptation of NMDA receptors.
Eur J Pharmacol 2000 Feb 18;389(2-3):187-92
"Repeated administration of the tricyclic antidepressant, desipramine, for 28 days to mice effected a decrease in the potency of glycine to displace [3H]5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid (5,7-DCKA) in mouse cortical homogenates. Pre-treatment with the noradrenergic neurotoxin DSP-4, while having no effect alone, attenuated the desipramine-induced effect. The present findings support a norepinephrine-dependent adaptation of the NMDA receptor complex in vivo following chronic desipramine treatment. The inter-relationship of norepinephrine and glutamate transmission may provide insight into the mechanism underlying the action of antidepressant drugs." [Abstract]

Li X, Eisenach JC.
alpha2A-adrenoceptor stimulation reduces capsaicin-induced glutamate release from spinal cord synaptosomes.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001 Dec;299(3):939-44
"Glutamate (Glu) is involved in excitatory neurotransmission and nociception and plays an essential role in relaying noxious stimuli in the spinal cord. Intrathecal or epidural injection of alpha2-adrenergic agonists produces potent antinociceptive effects, alters spinal neurotransmitter release, and effectively treats acute nociceptive and chronic neuropathic pain. Although it is generally believed that alpha2-adrenergic receptor stimulation reduces excitatory neurotransmitter release from peripheral afferents, the subtype of receptor causing this effect and its specificity to nociceptive neurotransmission have been inadequately studied. We therefore examined the pharmacology of adrenergic agents to inhibit Glu release in spinal cord from stimulation with capsaicin, a specific agonist for receptors on nociceptive afferents. Capsaicin evoked Glu release in synaptosomes from normal rat dorsal spinal cord in a concentration-dependent manner. Glu release from 30 microM capsaicin was inhibited by adrenergic agonists with a relative potency of clonidine = dexmedetomidine > norepinephrine > ST91 >> phenylephrine = 0, consistent with an action on alpha2A/D subtype receptors. Also consistent with this interpretation was the observation that inhibition of capsaicin-induced Glu release by clonidine or dexmedetomidine was blocked by the alpha2A/D antagonist BRL44408 but not by the alpha2B/C-preferring antagonist ARC239. Similar results were obtained in perfused spinal cord slices. These data suggest that capsaicin-evoked Glu release, likely reflecting stimulation of C fiber terminals, can be inhibited by activation of the alpha2A/D subtype, and this action of adrenergic agonists may reflect in part their efficacy in the treatment of acute pain." [Abstract]

Golembiowska K, Dziubina A.
Involvement of adenosine in the effect of antidepressants on glutamate and aspartate release in the rat prefrontal cortex.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2001 Jun;363(6):663-70
"The effect of local administration of amitriptyline (AMI), desipramine (DMI) and citalopram (CIT) on veratridine-evoked glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp) release in the prefrontal cortex of the conscious rat was examined using in vivo reverse microdialysis. The antidepressants (each at 100 microM) significantly reduced Glu and Asp release. The effect of AMI and CIT was attenuated by i.p. administration of the adenosine A1/A2A receptor antagonist caffeine (10 mg/kg), or by local infusion of the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT, 75 microM). Neither caffeine nor CPT influenced the effect of DMI (100 microM). The inhibitory action of DMI at a lower concentration (50 microM) was diminished significantly by CPT, but not caffeine. Perfusion of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; 100 microM) and the selective agonist of adenosine A1 receptors N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 50 and 100 microM) also suppressed Glu and Asp release. It is suggested that the blockade of the cellular uptake of adenosine, or indirect enhancement of its release, and subsequent activation of adenosine A1 receptors may be responsible for the inhibitory effect of antidepressants on Glu and Asp release." [Abstract]

Fredriksson A, Archer T.
Hyperactivity following postnatal NMDA antagonist treatment: reversal by D-amphetamine.
Neurotox Res. 2003;5(7):549-64.
"Three experiments were performed to study the effects of neonatal administration of glutamate receptor antagonists, on either Day 11 (dizocilpine = MK-801, 3 x 0.5 mg/kg, s.c., injected at 0800, 1600 and 2400 h) or Day 10 (Ketamine, 1 x 50 mg/kg, s.c., or Ethanol-Low, 1 x 2.5 mg/kg, or, Ethanol-High, 2 x 2.5 mg/kg, s.c., with 2-h interval) to male mice pups, on spontaneous motor behavior, habituation to a novel situation and D-amphetamine-induced activity in the adult animals. Mice administered MK-801 showed initial hypoactivity followed by hyperactivity over the later (20-40 and 40-60 min) periods of testing. Mice administered Ketamine and Ethanol-High similarly displayed an initial hypoactivity followed by hyperactivity over the later time (20-60 min) of testing. Habituation to the novel activity test chambers was reduced drastically in the MK-801 mice compared with vehicle-treated mice. Similarly, mice administered Ketamine and Ethanol-High displayed too drastically reduced habituation behavior. The low dose of D-amphetamine (0.25 mg/kg) reduced the hyperactivity of neonatal MK-801-treated mice, particularly from 30-60 min onwards, and elevated the activity level of the vehicle-treated mice. Similarly, the low dose of D-amphetamine (0.25 mg/kg) reduced the hyperactivity of neonatally Ketamine-treated and Ethanol-High-treated mice, particularly from 30-60 min onwards, and elevated the activity level of the respective vehicle-treated mice. Fluoro-jade staining per mm(2) regional brain tissue of MK-801 mice pups expressed as percent of vehicle mice pups showed also that the extensiveness of staining was markedly greater in the parietal cortex, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and lesser so in the laterodorsal thalamus. Ketamine-treated mice showed cell degeneration mainly in the parietal cortex, whereas the Ethanol-High mice showed marked cell degeneration in both the parietal and laterodorsal cortex. The present findings that encompass a pattern of regional neuronal degeneration, disruptions of spontaneous motor activity, habituation deficits and reversal of hyperactivity by a low dose of D-amphetamine suggest a model of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder that underlines the intimate role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the developing brain." [Abstract]

Lehohla M, Kellaway L, Russell VA.
NMDA receptor function in the prefrontal cortex of a rat model for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Metab Brain Dis. 2004 Jun;19(1-2):35-42.
"The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is an accepted model for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) since it displays the major symptoms of ADHD (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and poor performance in tasks that require sustained attention). We have previously shown that glutamate activation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptors released significantly more norepinephrine from SHR prefrontal cortex slices than control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function is disturbed in the prefrontal cortex of SHR. Prefrontal cortex slices were incubated with 45Ca2+ in the presence or absence of 100 microM NMDA for 2 min. Activation of NMDA receptors stimulated significantly less Ca2+ uptake into prefrontal cortex slices of SHR than control WKY (2.8 +/- 0.17 vs. 3.7 +/- 0.38 nmol/mg protein, respectively, P < 0.05). Basal Ca2+ uptake into SHR slices was not significantly different from WKY. These findings are consistent with suggestions that the intracellular concentration of calcium is elevated and therefore the concentration gradient that drives calcium into the cell is decreased in SHR compared to WKY. Impaired NMDA receptor function in the prefrontal cortex of SHR could give rise to impaired cognition and an inability to sustain attention." [Abstract]

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Recent ADHD and Glutamate Research

1) Adler LA, Kroon RA, Stein M, Shahid M, Tarazi FI, Szegedi A, Schipper J, Cazorla P
A Translational Approach to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of the Novel AMPA Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulator Org 26576 in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Jul 6;
BACKGROUND: It has been posited that glutamate dysregulation contributes to the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Modulation of glutamate neurotransmission may provide alternative therapeutic options. The novel 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid receptor positive allosteric modulator Org 26576 was investigated with a translational approach including preclinical and clinical testing. METHODS: Neonatal rat 6-hydroxydopamine lesion-induced hyperactivity was used as preclinical model. Seventy-eight ADHD adults entered a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial. After 1 week placebo lead-in, 67 subjects were randomized into one of four treatment sequences: sequence A (n = 15) Org 26576 (100 mg b.i.d.) for 3 weeks, followed by a 2-week placebo crossover and 3 weeks placebo; sequence B (n = 16) 5 weeks placebo followed by 3 weeks Org 26576 (100 mg b.i.d.); sequence C (n = 18) Org 26576 flexible dose (100-300 mg b.i.d.) for 3 weeks, then 5 weeks placebo; sequence D (n = 18) 5 weeks placebo followed by 3 weeks Org 26576 (100-300 mg b.i.d.). The Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale was used to assess changes in ADHD symptomatology. RESULTS: Org 26576 (1, 3, 10 mg/kg intraperitoneal) produced dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor hyperactivity in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Org 26576 (100 mg b.i.d.) was superior to placebo in treating symptoms of adult ADHD subjects. The primary Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale results were supported by some secondary analyses. However, Org 26576 (100-300 mg b.i.d.) did not confirm these results. Most frequently reported adverse events were nausea, dizziness, and headache. CONCLUSIONS: These preclinical and clinical findings suggest that Org 25676 may have utility in the treatment of ADHD. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

2) Mc Fie S, Sterley TL, Howells FM, Russell VA
Clozapine decreases exploratory activity and increases anxiety-like behaviour in the Wistar-Kyoto rat but not the spontaneously hypertensive rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Brain Res. 2012 Jul 27;1467:91-103.
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is the most widely used animal model of ADHD. SHR has been found to have increased glutamate-stimulated noradrenaline release from varicosities in several brain areas. Besides its effects on dopamine D4 receptors, clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic with antagonistic effects on ?(1)-adrenoceptors, may reduce activation of ?(1)-adrenoceptors in SHR and thereby attenuate their hyperactivity. The aims of the study were to determine the effect of clozapine (post-natal day (P) 21-P35, 10mg/kg/day) on SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), SHR's normotensive control, and a standard laboratory strain, Sprague Dawley (SD). Rat behaviour was assessed in the open field (P32), novel object (P33) and elevated plus maze (P34) tests that measured locomotor and anxiety-related behaviour. An in vitro superfusion technique was used to measure [(3)H]noradrenaline release in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampal slices (P35 or P36). Clozapine decreased exploratory activity in WKY, consistent with antagonism of dopamine D4 and ?(1)-adrenoceptors reducing the behavioural response to novelty. Clozapine also increased anxiety-related behaviour of WKY. However, clozapine did not affect SHR, suggesting that genetic predisposition may play a role in determining clozapine's behavioural effects. WKY have been shown to have higher levels of dopamine D4 receptor expression in the PFC than SHR, which may be a reason for their elevated response to clozapine. SHR released more [(3)H]noradrenaline from PFC and hippocampal slices in response to glutamate- and elevated potassium-stimulation, compared to WKY and SD rats. However clozapine treatment did not affect glutamate-, GABA- or depolarization-evoked release of [(3)H]noradrenaline. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

3) Wilson CA, Schade R, Terry AV
Variable prenatal stress results in impairments of sustained attention and inhibitory response control in a 5-choice serial reaction time task in rats.
Neuroscience. 2012 Aug 30;218:126-37.
Rats repeatedly exposed to variable prenatal stress (PNS) exhibit schizophrenia-like behavioral signs such as social withdrawal, elevations in amphetamine-induced locomotor activity, deficits in sensory-motor gating, as well as impairments in memory-related task performance. However, to date there have been no studies designed to test the hypothesis that variable PNS would lead to disruptions in sustained attention and inhibitory response control (i.e., symptoms also commonly observed in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder). In the current study, the effects of variable PNS in rats were evaluated in fixed and variable stimulus duration (VSD) as well as variable intertrial interval (VITI) versions of a 5-choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRTT). In a separate series of experiments, the glutamate (N-methyl-d-aspartate [NMDA]) antagonist, MK-801 (0.025-0.05mg/kg), and the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine (0.30-3.0mg/kg), were administered acutely to assess the sensitivity of PNS subjects to glutamatergic and noradrenergic manipulations. The results indicated that exposure to variable PNS significantly impaired accuracy in the VSD version of the 5C-SRTT and increased premature and timeout responses in the VITI version. In addition, both doses of MK-801 impaired accuracy, increased premature and timeout responses in PNS, but not control subjects. In contrast, atomoxetine decreased premature and timeout responses in both PNS and control subjects in the VITI version of the task and improved accuracy in the PNS subjects. The results suggest that exposure to variable PNS in rats results in impairments of sustained attention and inhibitory response control and that these deficits can be exacerbated by NMDA antagonism and improved by a norepinephrine uptake inhibitor. Collectively, these data further support the premise that variable PNS in rats is a valid model system for the study of neuropsychiatric disorders and their treatment. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

4) Freese L, Muller EJ, Souza MF, Couto-Pereira NS, Tosca CF, Ferigolo M, Barros HM
GABA system changes in methylphenidate sensitized female rats.
Behav Brain Res. 2012 May 16;231(1):181-6.
Methylphenidate (MPD) is a psychostimulant that is prescribed to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and has been used as a recreational drug. In animal models, repetitive exposure to methylphenidate can induce a behavioral sensitization. Stimulants are able to change neuronal circuits in the mesolimbic pathway, and the GABA system is one of the most involved neurotransmitter systems in this process. Women represent a risk group for psychostimulant abuse because they respond more strongly, which is probably due to the influence of sex hormones. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of sex hormones on behavioral sentsitization and changes to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GDA65 and GDA67) isoenzymes and ?2 GABAA receptor subunit mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex and the striatum of rats, as induced by methylphenidate administration (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Female rats were divided into 2 hormonal conditions: ovariectomized and intact group. Repeated methylphenidate treatment led to behavioral sensitization, which was stronger in females with circulating hormones (intact group). The analysis of mRNA levels in the striatum, in both groups, showed a decline in GAD65, but not GAD67, transcription after repeated methylphenidate treatment. In the prefrontal cortex, both GAD65 and GAD67 showed an increase in transcription with repeated methylphenidate treatment. There was no change in the transcription level of ?2 GABAA receptor subunits. In conclusion, it was shown that sex hormones were able to modify behavioral sensitization to methylphenidate and the drug affected the GABA system in brain areas known to be involved in the development of drug dependence. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

5) Surman CB, Hammerness PG, Petty C, Spencer T, Doyle R, Napolean S, Chu N, Yorks D, Biederman J
A pilot open label prospective study of memantine monotherapy in adults with ADHD.
World J Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Mar 22;
Objectives. Available pharmacotherapies treat some adults with ADHD inadequately. A small literature suggests that glutamate modulation could have effects on ADHD. Methods. Memantine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, was titrated to a maximum dose of 10 mg BID in 34 adult subjects aged 18-55 who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD or ADHD NOS on structured interview. Twenty-eight subjects completed 12 weeks exposure. The Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Report (AISRS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI), a neuropsychological battery sensitive to domains of executive function, and the CANTAB cognitive battery were administered. Paired t-tests compared treated and baseline scores. Results. At week 12, AISRS data showed reduction in total symptoms (-17.5, P < 0.001), inattentive symptoms (-10.6, P < 0.001), and hyperactive symptoms (-6.9, P < 0.01). A total of 44% of subjects had CGI ratings of much or very much improved. Cognitive performance improved in measures of attention, working memory, and other selected executive domains by weeks 6 and 12 (each P < 0.05); simple reaction time declined by week 12 (P < 0.05). There were no severe adverse events, but mild adverse events were common and six subjects discontinued due to adverse effects. Conclusions. Memantine was largely well-tolerated and associated with improvement in ADHD symptoms and neuropsychological performance. Randomized studies are indicated to confirm whether memantine is a novel therapy for ADHD across the lifespan. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

6) O'Sullivan ML, de Wit J, Savas JN, Comoletti D, Otto-Hitt S, Yates JR, Ghosh A
FLRT proteins are endogenous latrophilin ligands and regulate excitatory synapse development.
Neuron. 2012 Mar 8;73(5):903-10.
Latrophilins (LPHNs) are a small family of G protein-coupled receptors known to mediate the massive synaptic exocytosis caused by the black widow spider venom ?-latrotoxin, but their endogenous ligands and function remain unclear. Mutations in LPHN3 are strongly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, suggesting a role for latrophilins in human cognitive function. Using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identify the FLRT family of leucine-rich repeat transmembrane proteins as endogenous postsynaptic ligands for latrophilins. We demonstrate that the FLRT3 and LPHN3 ectodomains interact with high affinity in trans and that interference with this interaction using soluble recombinant LPHN3, LPHN3 shRNA, or FLRT3 shRNA reduces excitatory synapse density in cultured neurons. In addition, reducing FLRT3 levels with shRNA in vivo decreases afferent input strength and dendritic spine number in dentate granule cells. These observations indicate that LPHN3 and its ligand FLRT3 play an important role in glutamatergic synapse development. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

7) Rout UK, Mungan NK, Dhossche DM
Presence of GAD65 autoantibodies in the serum of children with autism or ADHD.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012 Mar;21(3):141-7.
Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) have been detected in the serum of patients with several neurological disorders. The presence of antibodies against GAD65 has not yet been examined in the serum of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, GAD65 antibodies and total IgG were assayed in the serum of normal subjects and patients diagnosed with autism or ADHD. GAD65 antibodies were detected in the serum of 15% of children with autism (N = 20), 27% of children with ADHD (N = 15) and of none of the controls (N = 14). The serum of 60% of autistic and 53% of ADHD patients reacted with Purkinje neurons in mouse cerebellum. Serum from 20% of ADHD patients reacted also with the cells in the molecular and granule cell layers and cells in the vicinity of the Purkinje neurons. No association was found between the titer of GAD65 antibodies and total IgG levels, and presence of seizures or mental retardation. None of the ADHD patients were diagnosed with mental retardation. Serum anti-GAD65 antibodies may be a common marker of subgroups of patients with autism and ADHD. Reactions of serum antibodies with the cells in the cerebellum in these patients suggest direct effects on brain function. The subgroup of children with autism and ADHD that tests positive for GAD65 antibodies needs further characterization in a larger study. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

8) Wiguna T, Guerrero AP, Wibisono S, Sastroasmoro S
Effect of 12-week administration of 20-mg long-acting methylphenidate on Glu/Cr, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios in the prefrontal cortices of school-age children in Indonesia: a study using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).
Clin Neuropharmacol. 2012 Mar-Apr;35(2):81-5.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

9) Lyon MR, Kapoor MP, Juneja LR
The effects of L-theanine (Suntheanine®) on objective sleep quality in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Altern Med Rev. 2011 Dec;16(4):348-54.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

10) Yu H, Li Q, Wang D, Shi L, Lu G, Sun L, Wang L, Zhu W, Mak YT, Wong N, Wang Y, Pan F, Yew DT
Mapping the central effects of chronic ketamine administration in an adolescent primate model by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Neurotoxicology. 2012 Jan;33(1):70-7.
Ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is capable of triggering excessive glutamate release and subsequent cortical excitation which may induce psychosis-like behavior and cognitive anomalies. Growing evidence suggests that acute ketamine administration can provoke dose-dependent positive and negative schizophrenia-like symptoms. While the acute effects of ketamine are primarily linked to aberrant activation of the prefrontal cortex and limbic structures with elevated glutamate and dopamine levels, the long-term effects of ketamine on brain functions and neurochemical homeostasis remain incompletely understood. In recent years, reports of ketamine abuse, especially among young individuals, have surged rapidly, with profound socioeconomic and health impacts. We herein investigated the chronic effects of ketamine on brain function integrity in an animal model of adolescent cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Immunohistochemical study was also conducted to examine neurochemical changes in the dopaminergic and cholinergic systems in the prefrontal cortex following chronic ketamine administration. Our results suggest that repeated exposure to ketamine markedly reduced neural activities in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra in midbrain, posterior cingulate cortex, and visual cortex in ketamine-challenged monkeys. In contrast, hyperfunction was observed in the striatum and entorhinal cortex. In terms of neurochemical and locomotive changes, chronically ketamine-challenged animals were found to have reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) but not choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) levels in the prefrontal cortex, which was accompanied by diminished total movement compared with the controls. Importantly, the mesolimbic, mesocortical and entorhinal-striatal systems were found to be functionally vulnerable to ketamine's chronic effects. Dysfunctions of these neural circuits have been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, schizophrenia and attention deficit disorder (ADD). Collectively, our results support the proposition that repeated ketamine exposure can be exploited as a pharmacological paradigm for studying the central effects of ketamine relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

11) Elia J, Glessner JT, Wang K, Takahashi N, Shtir CJ, Hadley D, Sleiman PM, Zhang H, Kim CE, Robison R, Lyon GJ, Flory JH, Bradfield JP, Imielinski M, Hou C, Frackelton EC, Chiavacci RM, Sakurai T, Rabin C, Middleton FA, Thomas KA, Garris M, Mentch F, Freitag CM, Steinhausen HC, Todorov AA, Reif A, Rothenberger A, Franke B, Mick EO, Roeyers H, Buitelaar J, Lesch KP, Banaschewski T, Ebstein RP, Mulas F, Oades RD, Sergeant J, Sonuga-Barke E, Renner TJ, Romanos M, Romanos J, Warnke A, Walitza S, Meyer J, Pálmason H, Seitz C, Loo SK, Smalley SL, Biederman J, Kent L, Asherson P, Anney RJ, Gaynor JW, Shaw P, Devoto M, White PS, Grant SF, Buxbaum JD, Rapoport JL, Williams NM, Nelson SF, Faraone SV, Hakonarson H
Genome-wide copy number variation study associates metabotropic glutamate receptor gene networks with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Nat Genet. 2012 Jan;44(1):78-84.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, heritable neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. We performed a whole-genome copy number variation (CNV) study on 1,013 cases with ADHD and 4,105 healthy children of European ancestry using 550,000 SNPs. We evaluated statistically significant findings in multiple independent cohorts, with a total of 2,493 cases with ADHD and 9,222 controls of European ancestry, using matched platforms. CNVs affecting metabotropic glutamate receptor genes were enriched across all cohorts (P = 2.1 × 10(-9)). We saw GRM5 (encoding glutamate receptor, metabotropic 5) deletions in ten cases and one control (P = 1.36 × 10(-6)). We saw GRM7 deletions in six cases, and we saw GRM8 deletions in eight cases and no controls. GRM1 was duplicated in eight cases. We experimentally validated the observed variants using quantitative RT-PCR. A gene network analysis showed that genes interacting with the genes in the GRM family are enriched for CNVs in ?10% of the cases (P = 4.38 × 10(-10)) after correction for occurrence in the controls. We identified rare recurrent CNVs affecting glutamatergic neurotransmission genes that were overrepresented in multiple ADHD cohorts. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

12) Dramsdahl M, Ersland L, Plessen KJ, Haavik J, Hugdahl K, Specht K
Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.
Front Psychiatry. 2011;2:65.
Background: Impaired cognitive control in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be related to a prefrontal cortical glutamatergic deficit. We assessed the glutamate level in the left and the right midfrontal region including the anterior cingulate cortex in adults with ADHD and healthy controls. Methods: Twenty-nine adults with ADHD and 38 healthy controls were included. We used Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging with single voxel point-resolved spectroscopy to measure the ratio of glutamate to creatine (Glu/Cre) in the left and the right midfrontal region in the two groups. Results: The ADHD group showed a significant reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region compared to the controls. Conclusion: The reduction of Glu/Cre in the left midfrontal region in the ADHD group may reflect a glutamatergic deficit in prefrontal neuronal circuitry in adults with ADHD, resulting in problems with cognitive control. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

13) Agnoli L, Carli M
Dorsal-striatal 5-HT₂A and 5-HT₂C receptors control impulsivity and perseverative responding in the 5-choice serial reaction time task.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Jan;219(2):633-45.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

14) Castelli M, Federici M, Rossi S, De Chiara V, Napolitano F, Studer V, Motta C, Sacchetti L, Romano R, Musella A, Bernardi G, Siracusano A, Gu HH, Mercuri NB, Usiello A, Centonze D
Loss of striatal cannabinoid CB1 receptor function in attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder mice with point-mutation of the dopamine transporter.
Eur J Neurosci. 2011 Nov;34(9):1369-77.
Abnormal dopamine (DA) transmission in the striatum plays a pivotal role in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As striatal DA signalling modulates the endocannabinoid system (ECS), the present study was aimed at investigating cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) function in a model of ADHD obtained by triple point-mutation in the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in mice, making them insensitive to cocaine [DAT cocaine-insensitive (DAT-CI) mice]. DAT-CI mice had a marked hyperactive phenotype, and neurophysiological recordings revealed that the sensitivity of CB1Rs controlling GABA-mediated synaptic currents [CB1Rs((GABA)) ] in the striatum was completely lost. In contrast, CB1Rs modulating glutamate transmission [CB1Rs((Glu)) ], and GABA(B) receptors were not affected in this model of ADHD. In DAT-CI mice, the blockade of CB1R((GABA)) function was complete even after cocaine or environmental manipulations activating the endogenous DA-dependent reward system, which are known to sensitize these receptors in control animals. Conversely, the hedonic property of sucrose was intact in DAT-CI mice, indicating normal sweet perception in these animals. Our results point to CB1Rs as novel molecular players in ADHD, and suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with the ECS might prove effective in this disorder. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

15) Hinney A, Scherag A, Jarick I, Albayrak Ö, Pütter C, Pechlivanis S, Dauvermann MR, Beck S, Weber H, Scherag S, Nguyen TT, Volckmar AL, Knoll N, Faraone SV, Neale BM, Franke B, Cichon S, Hoffmann P, Nöthen MM, Schreiber S, Jöckel KH, Wichmann HE, Freitag C, Lempp T, Meyer J, Gilsbach S, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Sinzig J, Lehmkuhl G, Renner TJ, Warnke A, Romanos M, Lesch KP, Reif A, Schimmelmann BG, Hebebrand J
Genome-wide association study in German patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011 Dec;156B(8):888-97.
The heritability of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is approximately 0.8. Despite several larger scale attempts, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not led to the identification of significant results. We performed a GWAS based on 495 German young patients with ADHD (according to DSM-IV criteria; Human660W-Quadv1; Illumina, San Diego, CA) and on 1,300 population-based adult controls (HumanHap550v3; Illumina). Some genes neighboring the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the lowest P-values (best P-value: 8.38 × 10(-7)) have potential relevance for ADHD (e.g., glutamate receptor, metabotropic 5 gene, GRM5). After quality control, the 30 independent SNPs with the lowest P-values (P-values ? 7.57 × 10(-5) ) were chosen for confirmation. Genotyping of these SNPs in up to 320 independent German families comprising at least one child with ADHD revealed directionally consistent effect-size point estimates for 19 (10 not consistent) of the SNPs. In silico analyses of the 30 SNPs in the largest meta-analysis so far (2,064 trios, 896 cases, and 2,455 controls) revealed directionally consistent effect-size point estimates for 16 SNPs (11 not consistent). None of the combined analyses revealed a genome-wide significant result. SNPs in previously described autosomal candidate genes did not show significantly lower P-values compared to SNPs within random sets of genes of the same size. We did not find genome-wide significant results in a GWAS of German children with ADHD compared to controls. The second best SNP is located in an intron of GRM5, a gene located within a recently described region with an infrequent copy number variation in patients with ADHD. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

16) Du Y, Wu X, Li L
Differentially organized top-down modulation of prepulse inhibition of startle.
J Neurosci. 2011 Sep 21;31(38):13644-53.
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle is the suppression of the startle reflex when a weaker sensory stimulus (the prepulse) shortly precedes the startling stimulus. PPI can be attentionally enhanced in both humans and laboratory animals. This study investigated whether the following three forebrain structures, which are critical for initial cortical processing of auditory signals, auditory fear conditioning/memories, and spatial attention, respectively, play a role in the top-down modulation of PPI in rats: the primary auditory cortex (A1), lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA), and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The results show that, under the noise-masking condition, PPI was enhanced by fear conditioning of the prepulse in a prepulse-specific manner, and the conditioning-induced PPI enhancement was further increased by perceptual separation between the conditioned prepulse and the noise masker. Reversibly blocking glutamate receptors in the A1 with 2 mm kynurenic acid eliminated both the conditioning-induced and perceptual separation-induced PPI enhancements. Blocking the LA eliminated the conditioning-induced but not the perceptual separation-induced PPI enhancement, and blocking the PPC specifically eliminated the perceptual separation-induced PPI enhancement. The two types of PPI enhancements were also eliminated by the extinction manipulation. Thus, the top-down modulation of PPI is differentially organized and depends on operations of various forebrain structures. Due to the fine-tuned modulation by higher-order cognitive processes, functions of PPI can be more flexible to complex environments. The top-down enhancements of PPI in rats are also useful for modeling some mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

17) González S, Rangel-Barajas C, Peper M, Lorenzo R, Moreno E, Ciruela F, Borycz J, Ortiz J, Lluís C, Franco R, McCormick PJ, Volkow ND, Rubinstein M, Floran B, Ferré S
Dopamine D4 receptor, but not the ADHD-associated D4.7 variant, forms functional heteromers with the dopamine D2S receptor in the brain.
Mol Psychiatry. 2012 Jun;17(6):650-62.
Polymorphic variants of the dopamine D(4) receptor have been consistently associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the functional significance of the risk polymorphism (variable number of tandem repeats in exon 3) is still unclear. Here, we show that whereas the most frequent 4-repeat (D(4.4)) and the 2-repeat (D(4.2)) variants form functional heteromers with the short isoform of the dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2S)), the 7-repeat risk allele (D(4.7)) does not. D(2) receptor activation in the D(2S)-D(4) receptor heteromer potentiates D(4) receptor-mediated MAPK signaling in transfected cells and in the striatum, which did not occur in cells expressing D(4.7) or in the striatum of knockin mutant mice carrying the 7 repeats of the human D(4.7) in the third intracellular loop of the D(4) receptor. In the striatum, D(4) receptors are localized in corticostriatal glutamatergic terminals, where they selectively modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission by interacting with D(2S) receptors. This interaction shows the same qualitative characteristics than the D(2S)-D(4) receptor heteromer-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and D(2S) receptor activation potentiates D(4) receptor-mediated inhibition of striatal glutamate release. It is therefore postulated that dysfunctional D(2S)-D(4.7) heteromers may impair presynaptic dopaminergic control of corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission and explain functional deficits associated with ADHD. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

18) Gong R, Ding C, Hu J, Lu Y, Liu F, Mann E, Xu F, Cohen MB, Luo M
Role for the membrane receptor guanylyl cyclase-C in attention deficiency and hyperactive behavior.
Science. 2011 Sep 16;333(6049):1642-6.
Midbrain dopamine neurons regulate many important behavioral processes, and their dysfunctions are associated with several human neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia. Here, we report that these neurons in mice selectively express guanylyl cyclase-C (GC-C), a membrane receptor previously thought to be expressed mainly in the intestine. GC-C activation potentiates the excitatory responses mediated by glutamate and acetylcholine receptors via the activity of guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Mice in which GC-C has been knocked out exhibit hyperactivity and attention deficits. Moreover, their behavioral phenotypes are reversed by ADHD therapeutics and a PKG activator. These results indicate important behavioral and physiological functions for the GC-C/PKG signaling pathway within the brain and suggest new therapeutic targets for neuropsychiatric disorders related to the malfunctions of midbrain dopamine neurons. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

19) Yuen EY, Yan Z
Cellular mechanisms for dopamine D4 receptor-induced homeostatic regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors.
J Biol Chem. 2011 Jul 15;286(28):24957-65.
Aberrant dopamine D(4) receptor function has been implicated in mental illnesses, including schizophrenia and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Recently we have found that D(4) receptor exerts an activity-dependent bi-directional regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic currents in pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex (PFC) via the dual control of calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) activity. In this study, we examined the signaling mechanisms downstream of CaMKII that govern the complex effects of D(4) on glutamatergic transmission. We found that in PFC neurons at high activity state, D(4) suppresses AMPAR responses by disrupting the kinesin motor-based transport of GluR2 along microtubules, which was accompanied by the D(4) reduction of microtubule stability via a mechanism dependent on CaMKII inhibition. On the other hand, in PFC neurons at the low activity state, D(4) potentiates AMPAR responses by facilitating synaptic targeting of GluR1 through the scaffold protein SAP97 via a mechanism dependent on CaMKII stimulation. Taken together, these results have identified distinct signaling mechanisms underlying the homeostatic regulation of glutamatergic transmission by D(4) receptors, which may be important for cognitive and emotional processes in which dopamine is involved. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

20) Cavaliere C, Cirillo G, Bianco MR, Adriani W, De Simone A, Leo D, Perrone-Capano C, Papa M
Methylphenidate administration determines enduring changes in neuroglial network in rats.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012 Jan;22(1):53-63.
Repeated exposure to psychostimulant drugs induces complex molecular and structural modifications in discrete brain regions of the meso-cortico-limbic system. This structural remodeling is thought to underlie neurobehavioral adaptive responses. Administration to adolescent rats of methylphenidate (MPH), commonly used in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), triggers alterations of reward-based behavior paralleled by persistent and plastic synaptic changes of neuronal and glial markers within key areas of the reward circuits. By immunohistochemistry, we observe a marked increase of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression and a down-regulation of glial glutamate transporter GLAST in dorso-lateral and ventro-medial striatum. Using electron microscopy, we find in the prefrontal cortex a significant reduction of the synaptic active zone length, paralleled by an increase of dendritic spines. We demonstrate that in limbic areas the MPH-induced reactive astrocytosis affects the glial glutamatergic uptake system that in turn could determine glutamate receptor sensitization. These processes could be sustained by NO production and synaptic rearrangement and contribute to MPH neuroglial induced rewiring. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]