RNA-specific adenosine deaminases (ADARs)


Attention Valued Visitor: A Drug Reference Page for FDA Approved General Anesthetics is now available!
Shawn Thomas (Shawn@neurotransmitter.net) is working to summarize the mechanisms of action of every drug approved by the FDA for a brain- related condition. In addition, new pages with more automated content will soon replace some of the older pages on the web site. If you have suggestions about content that you would like to see, e-mail Shawn@neurotransmitter.net if you have anything at all to share.


Web www.neurotransmitter.net

Schmauss C, Howe JR.
RNA editing of neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain.
Sci STKE 2002 May 21;2002(133):PE26
"RNA editing refers to various posttranscriptional mechanisms that alter the nucleotide sequence of RNA. In the mammalian brain, RNA editing results in significant changes in the functional properties of receptors for the important neurotransmitters glutamate and serotonin. These changes result from site-specific deamination of single adenosines in the pre-messenger RNA encoding these receptors. Here, we review what is known about the mechanisms underlying this editing, the consequences of RNA editing for glutamate and serotonin receptor function, and recent studies on transgenic mice and human post-mortem tissue that have begun to elucidate the role of RNA editing in the intact mammalian brain." [Abstract]

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man: ADAR2

Mittaz L, Scott HS, Rossier C, Seeburg PH, Higuchi M, Antonarakis SE.
Cloning of a human RNA editing deaminase (ADARB1) of glutamate receptors that maps to chromosome 21q22.3.
Genomics 1997 Apr 15;41(2):210-7
"RED1 is a double-stranded RNA-specific editase characterized in the rat and is implicated in the editing of glutamate receptor subunit pre-mRNAs, particularly in the brain. Starting from human ESTs homologous to the rat RED1 sequence, we have characterized two forms of human RED1 cDNAs, one form coding for a putative peptide of 701 amino acids (similar to the shorter of two rat mRNAs) and a long form coding for a putative protein of 741 amino acids, the extra 120 bp of which are homologous to an AluJ sequence. Both forms were observed at approximately equal levels in cDNA clones and in seven different human tissues tested by RT-PCR. The human and rat short isoforms have 95 and 85% sequence identity at the amino acid and nucleotide levels, respectively. The human sequence (designated ADARB1 by the HGMW Nomenclature Committee) contains two double-stranded RNA-binding domains and a deaminase domain implicated in its editing action. Northern blot analysis detected two transcripts of 8.8 and 4.2 kb strongly expressed in brain and in many human adult and fetal tissues. ADARB1 maps to human chromosome 21q22.3, a region to which several genetic disorders map, including one form of bipolar affective disorder. Recently it was shown that heterozygous mice harboring an editing-incompetent glutamate receptor B allele have early onset fatal epilepsy. Since glutamate receptor channels are essential elements in synaptic function and plasticity and mediate pathology in many neurological disorders, and since RED1 is central in glutamate receptor channel control, ADARB1 is a candidate gene for diseases with neurological symptoms, such as bipolar affective disorder and epilepsy."

Jaikaran DC, Collins CH, MacMillan AM.
Adenosine to Inosine Editing by ADAR2 Requires Formation of a Ternary Complex on the GluR-B R/G Site.
J Biol Chem 2002 Oct 4;277(40):37624-9
"RNA editing by members of the ADAR (adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA) enzyme family involves hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine within the context of a double-stranded pre-mRNA substrate. Editing of the human GluR-B transcript is catalyzed by the enzyme ADAR2 at the Q/R and R/G sites. We have established a minimal RNA substrate for editing based on the R/G site and have characterized the interaction of ADAR2 with this RNA by gel shift, kinetic, and cross-linking analyses. Gel shift analysis revealed that two complexes are formed on the RNA as protein concentration is increased; the ADAR monomers can be cross-linked to one another in an RNA-dependent fashion. We performed a detailed kinetic study of the editing reaction; the data from this study are consistent with a reaction scheme in which formation of an ADAR2.RNA ternary complex is required for efficient RNA editing and in which formation of this complex is rate determining. These observations suggest that RNA adenosine deaminases function as homodimers on their RNA substrates and may partially explain regulation of RNA editing in these systems." [Abstract]

Wong SK, Sato S, Lazinski DW.
Substrate recognition by ADAR1 and ADAR2.
RNA 2001 Jun;7(6):846-58
"RNA editing catalyzed by ADAR1 and ADAR2 involves the site-specific conversion of adenosine to inosine within imperfectly duplexed RNA. ADAR1- and ADAR2-mediated editing occurs within transcripts of glutamate receptors (GluR) in the brain and in hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA in the liver. Although the Q/R site within the GluR-B premessage is edited more efficiently by ADAR2 than it is by ADAR1, the converse is true for the +60 site within this same transcript. ADAR1 and ADAR2 are homologs having two common functional regions, an N-terminal double-stranded RNA-binding domain and a C-terminal deaminase domain. It is neither understood why only certain adenosines within a substrate molecule serve as targets for ADARs, nor is it known which domain of an ADAR confers its specificity for particular editing sites. To assess the importance of several aspects of RNA sequence and structure on editing, we evaluated 20 different mutated substrates, derived from four editing sites, for their ability to be edited by either ADAR1 or ADAR2. We found that when these derivatives contained an A:C mismatch at the editing site, editing by both ADARs was enhanced compared to when A:A or A:G mismatches or A:U base pairs occurred at the same site. Hence substrate recognition and/or catalysis by ADARs could involve the base that opposes the edited adenosine. In addition, by using protein chimeras in which the deaminase domains were exchanged between ADAR1 and ADAR2, we found that this domain played a dominant role in defining the substrate specificity of the resulting enzyme." [Abstract]

Seeburg PH.
A-to-I editing: new and old sites, functions and speculations.
Neuron 2002 Jul 3;35(1):17-20
"Nuclear pre-mRNA editing by selective adenosine deamination (A-to-I editing) occurs in all organisms from C. elegans to humans. This rare posttranscriptional mechanism can alter codons and hence the structure and function of proteins. New findings report new sites, give evidence that the efficiency of editing can be regulated by neurotransmitter, and reveal that an amino acid substitution introduced by editing into a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel subunit serves as a determinant for controlling the maturation, intracellular trafficking, and assembly with other subunits of this transmembrane protein." [Abstract]

Scadden AD, Smith CW.
RNAi is antagonized by A-->I hyper-editing.
EMBO Rep 2001 Dec;2(12):1107-11
"RNA interference (RNAi) and adenosine to inosine conversion are both mechanisms that respond to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and have been suggested to have antiviral roles. RNAi involves processing of dsRNA to short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which subsequently mediate degradation of the cognate mRNAs. Deamination of adenosines changes the coding capacity of the RNA, as inosine is decoded as guanosine, and alters the structure because A-U base pairs are replaced by I*U wobble pairs. Here we show that RNAi is inhibited if the triggering dsRNA is first deaminated by ADAR2. Moreover, we show that production of siRNAs is progressively inhibited with increasing deamination and that this is sufficient to explain the inhibition of RNAi upon hyper-editing of dsRNAs." [Abstract]

Scadden, A.D.J., Smith, Christopher W.J.
Specific cleavage of hyper-edited dsRNAs
EMBO J. 2001 20: 4243-4252
"Extended double-stranded DNA (dsRNA) duplexes can be hyper-edited by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs). Long uninterrupted dsRNA is relatively uncommon in cells, and is frequently associated with infection by DNA or RNA viruses. Moreover, extensive adenosine to inosine editing has been reported for various viruses. A number of cellular antiviral defence strategies are stimulated by dsRNA. An additional mechanism to remove dsRNA from cells may involve hyper-editing of dsRNA by ADARs, followed by targeted cleavage. We describe here a cytoplasmic endonuclease activity that specifically cleaves hyper-edited dsRNA. Cleavage occurs at specific sites consisting of alternating IU and UI base pairs. In contrast, unmodified dsRNA and even deaminated dsRNAs that contain four consecutive IU base pairs are not cleaved. Moreover, dsRNAs in which alternating IU and UI base pairs are replaced by isomorphic GU and UG base pairs are not cleaved. Thus, the cleavage of deaminated dsRNA appears to require an RNA structure that is unique to hyper-edited RNA, providing a molecular target for the disposal of hyper-edited viral RNA." [Abstract]

Kohr G, Melcher T, Seeburg PH.
Candidate editases for GluR channels in single neurons of rat hippocampus and cerebellum.
Neuropharmacology 1998 Oct-Nov;37(10-11):1411-7
"RNA editing by site selective adenosine deamination changes codons in several nuclear transcripts in the mammalian brain and affects critical properties of the encoded proteins, as exemplified by the calcium permeability of AMPA receptor channels. The recently cloned RNA dependent adenosine deaminases ADAR1, ADAR2 and ADAR3 form a small family of sequence-related candidate editases which are expressed in brain and other tissues at distinct levels and patterns. We have employed single-cell polymerase chain reaction of hippocampal CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and cerebellar Purkinje and Bergmann glial cells in an attempt to evaluate the expression of these enzymes at a cellular level. We found ADAR2 expressed in all cells analyzed; approximately 50% of the cells co-expressed ADAR1 or ADAR3. The differential ADAR expression revealed by our study might underlie the distinct editing efficiencies and selectivities in different GluR subunit transcripts." [Abstract]

Hye Young Yi-Brunozzi, Olen M. Stephens, and Peter A. Beal
Conformational Changes That Occur during an RNA-editing Adenosine Deamination Reaction
J. Biol. Chem. 276: 37827-37833, 2001.
"ADARs are adenosine deaminases responsible for RNA-editing reactions that occur within duplex RNA. Currently little is known regarding the nature of the protein-RNA interactions that lead to site-selective adenosine deamination. We previously reported that ADAR2 induced changes in 2-aminopurine fluorescence of a modified substrate, consistent with a base-flipping mechanism. Additional data have been obtained using full-length ADAR2 and a protein comprising only the RNA binding domain (RBD) of ADAR2. The increase in 2-aminopurine fluorescence is specific to the editing site and dependent on the presence of the catalytic domain. Hydroxyl radical footprinting demonstrates that the RBD protects a region of the RNA duplex around the editing site, suggesting a significant role for the RBD in identifying potential ADAR2 editing sites. Nucleotides near the editing site on the non-edited strand become hypersensitive to hydrolytic cleavage upon binding of ADAR2 RBD. Therefore, the RBD may assist base flipping by increasing the conformational flexibility of nucleotides in the duplex adjacent to its binding site. In addition, an increase in tryptophan fluorescence is observed when ADAR2 binds duplex RNA, suggesting a conformational change in the catalytic domain of the enzyme. Furthermore, acrylamide quenching experiments indicate that RNA binding creates heterogeneity in the solvent accessibility of ADAR2 tryptophan residues, with one out of five tryptophans more solvent-accessible in the ADAR2·RNA complex." [Full Text]

Kawakubo K, Samuel CE.
Human RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1) gene specifies transcripts that initiate from a constitutively active alternative promoter.
Gene 2000 Nov 27;258(1-2):165-72
"The human ADAR1 gene specifies two size forms of RNA-specific adenosine deaminase, an interferon (IFN) inducible approximately 150 kDa protein and a constitutively expressed N-terminally truncated approximately 110 kDa protein, encoded by transcripts with alternative exon 1 structures that initiate from different promoters. We have now identified a new class of ADAR1 transcripts, with alternative 5'-structures and a deduced coding capacity for the approximately 110 kDa protein. Nuclease protection and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE) revealed five major ADAR1 transcriptional start sites that mapped within the previously identified and unusually large (approximately 1.6 kb) exon 2. These transcripts were observed with RNA from human amnion U cells and placenta tissue. Their abundance was not affected by IFN-alpha treatment of U cells in culture. Transfection analysis identified a functional promoter within human genomic DNA that mapped to the proximal exon 2 region of the ADAR1 gene. Promoter activity was not affected by IFN. These results suggest that transcripts encoding the constitutively expressed approximately 110 kDa form of the ADAR1 editing enzyme are initiated from multiple promoters, including one within exon 2, that collectively contribute to the high basal level of deaminase activity observed in nuclei of mammalian cells." [Abstract]

Stephens OM, Yi-Brunozzi HY, Beal PA.
Analysis of the RNA-editing reaction of ADAR2 with structural and fluorescent analogues of the GluR-B R/G editing site.
Biochemistry 2000 Oct 10;39(40):12243-51
"ADARs are adenosine deaminases responsible for RNA editing reactions that occur in eukaryotic pre-mRNAs, including the pre-mRNAs of glutamate and serotonin receptors. Here we describe the generation and analysis of synthetic ADAR2 substrates that differ in structure around an RNA editing site. We find that five base pairs of duplex secondary structure 5' to the editing site increase the single turnover rate constant for deamination 17-39-fold when compared to substrates lacking this structure. ADAR2 deaminates an adenosine in the sequence context of a natural editing site >90-fold more rapidly and to a higher yield than an adjacent adenosine in the same RNA structure. This reactivity is minimally dependent on the base pairing partner of the edited nucleotide; adenosine at the editing site in the naturally occurring A.C mismatch is deaminated to approximately the same extent and only 4 times faster than adenosine in an A.U base pair at this site. A steady-state rate analysis at a saturating concentration of the most rapidly processed substrate indicates that product formation is linear with time through at least three turnovers with a slope of 13 +/- 1.5 nM.min(-1) at 30 nM ADAR2 for a k(ss) = 0.43 +/- 0.05 min(-1). In addition, ADAR2 induces a 3.3-fold enhancement in fluorescence intensity and a 14 nm blue shift in the emission maximum of a duplex substrate with 2-aminopurine located at the editing site, consistent with a mechanism whereby ADAR2 flips the reactive nucleotide out of the double helix prior to deamination." [Abstract]

Paupard M-C, O'Connell MA, Gerber AP, Zukin RS.
Patterns of developmental expression of the RNA editing enzyme rADAR2.
Neuroscience 2000;95(3):869-79
"To date, two structurally related RNA-editing enzymes with adenosine deaminase activity have been identified in mammalian tissue: ADAR1 and ADAR2 [Bass B. I. et al. (1997) RNA 3, 947-949]. In rodents, ADAR2 undergoes alternative RNA splicing, giving rise to two splice variants that differ by the presence or absence of a 10-amino-acid insert in the carboxy-terminal catalytic domain. However, the physiological significance of the splicing and its regional and developmental regulation are as yet unknown. The present study examined spatial and temporal patterns of ADAR2 gene transcripts within specific neuronal populations of rat brain. The two rodent ADAR2 isoforms were expressed at comparable levels at all ages examined. rADAR2 messenger RNA expression was first detectable in the thalamic nuclei formation at embryonic day E19. The rADAR2b insert and rADAR2a splice probes produced images similar to that of the rADAR2 pan probe. At birth, rADAR2a messenger RNA splice variants were abundantly expressed in the thalamic nuclei. No signal for any probe was detectable in other brain regions, including neocortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum at this stage of development. During the first week of postnatal life, rADAR2 messenger RNA expression (detected with the pan probe) increased gradually in several brain regions, with low expression detected at postnatal day P7 in the olfactory bulb, inferior colliculus, and within the pyramidal and granule cell layers of the hippocampus. Hybridization patterns of the rADAR2a variant probe reached peak expression at about the second week of life, while peak expression of the rADAR2b probe was reached at about the third week of life. At the end of the first week of life (P7), expression of both splice variants was strongest in the thalamic nuclei. By P14, rADAR2 messenger RNA expression was more consolidated in the deeper structures, including the thalamic nuclei and the granule cell layer of the cerebellum. By P21, maximal levels of rADARb expression were observed in the thalamic nuclei, inferior colliculus, cerebellum and pontine nuclei. In the adult, rADAR2 messenger RNA expression was of highest intensity in the thalamic nuclei, with high levels of expression in the olfactory bulb, inferior colliculus, cerebellum and pontine nuclei. At the level of the hippocampus, positive labelling was restricted to the CA3 region of the Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus, with weak signals in the CA1 subfield. rADAR2 pan expression was at near background levels throughout the neocortex and caudate putamen. In summary, our study shows that ADAR2 messenger RNA expression is regulated in a cell-specific manner throughout development. At early ages, ADAR2 messenger RNA is expressed only within (and restricted to) the thalamic nuclei. By the third postnatal week, expression of the editase enzyme is more widely distributed throughout the olfactory bulb, CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, thalamus, inferior colliculus and the molecular cell layer of the cerebellum. ADAR2 is thought to act at specific nucleotide positions in primary transcripts encoding glutamate receptor subunits, thereby altering gating and ionic permeability properties of AMPA- and kainate-activated channels. ADAR2 also acts at pre-messenger RNA encoding the serotonin 5HT-2C receptor to alter G-protein coupling. Thus, RNA editing may be an important mechanism for fine-tuning of the physiological and pharmacological properties of transmitter receptors of the central nervous system." [Abstract]

Yong Liu, and Charles E. Samuel
Editing of Glutamate Receptor Subunit B Pre-mRNA by Splice-site Variants of Interferon-inducible Double-stranded RNA-specific Adenosine Deaminase ADAR1
J. Biol. Chem. 274: 5070-5077, 1999.
"The interferon-inducible RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1) is an RNA-editing enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of adenosine in double-stranded RNA structures. Three alternative splice-site variants of ADAR1 (ADAR1-a, -b, and -c) occur that possess functionally distinct double-stranded RNA-binding motifs as measured with synthetic double-stranded RNA substrates. The pre-mRNA transcript encoding the B subunit of glutamate receptor (GluR-B) has two functionally important editing sites (Q/R and R/G sites) that undergo selective A-to-I conversions. We have examined the ability of the three ADAR1 splice-site variants to catalyze the editing of GluR-B pre-mRNA at the Q/R and R/G sites as well as an intron hotspot (+60) of unknown function. Measurement of GluR-B pre-mRNA editing in vitro revealed different site-specific deamination catalyzed by the three ADAR1 variants. The ADAR1-a, -b, and -c splice variants all efficiently edited the R/G site and the intron +60 hotspot but exhibited little editing activity at the Q/R site. ADAR1-b and -c showed higher editing activity than ADAR1-a for the R/G site, whereas the intron +60 site was edited with comparable efficiency by all three ADAR1 splice variants. Mutational analysis revealed that the functional importance of each of the three RNA-binding motifs of ADAR1 varied with the specific target editing site in GluR-B RNA. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses of GluR-B RNA from dissected regions of rat brain showed significant expression and editing at the R/G site in all brain regions examined except the choroid plexus. The relative levels of the alternatively spliced flip and flop isoforms of GluR-B RNA varied among the choroid plexus, cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, and striatum, but in all regions of rat brain the editing of the flip isoform was greater than that of the flop isoform." [Full Text]

Palladino MJ, Keegan LP, O'Connell MA, Reenan RA.
A-to-I pre-mRNA editing in Drosophila is primarily involved in adult nervous system function and integrity.
Cell 2000 Aug 18;102(4):437-49
"Specific A-to-I RNA editing, like that seen in mammals, has been reported for several Drosophila ion channel genes. Drosophila possesses a candidate editing enzyme, dADAR. Here, we describe dADAR deletion mutants that lack ADAR activity in extracts. Correspondingly, all known Drosophila site-specific RNA editing (25 sites in three ion channel transcripts) is abolished. Adults lacking dADAR are morphologically wild-type but exhibit extreme behavioral deficits including temperature-sensitive paralysis, locomotor uncoordination, and tremors which increase in severity with age. Neurodegeneration accompanies the increase in phenotypic severity. Surprisingly, dADAR mutants are not short-lived. Thus, A-to-I editing of pre-mRNAs in Drosophila acts predominantly through nervous system targets to affect adult nervous system function, integrity, and behavior." [Abstract]

Reenan RA.
The RNA world meets behavior: A-->I pre-mRNA editing in animals.
Trends Genet 2001 Feb;17(2):53-6
"Speculations on the genetic component of animal behavior have been fueled primarily by single-gene mutations that affect specific behaviors in model organisms. Pre-mRNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) provides an additional mechanism for introducing protein diversity and has primarily been observed in signaling components of the nervous system. Two recent reports of mutant mice and Drosophila deficient in ADAR activities provide further evidence that pre-mRNA editing has an ancient and primary role in the evolution of nervous system function and behavior." [Abstract]

Lehmann KA, Bass BL.
Double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminases ADAR1 and ADAR2 have overlapping specificities.
Biochemistry 2000 Oct 24;39(42):12875-84
"Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) deaminate adenosines to produce inosines within RNAs that are largely double-stranded (ds). Like most dsRNA binding proteins, the enzymes will bind to any dsRNA without apparent sequence specificity. However, once bound, ADARs deaminate certain adenosines more efficiently than others. Most of what is known about the intrinsic deamination specificity of ADARs derives from analyses of Xenopus ADAR1. In addition to ADAR1, mammalian cells have a second ADAR, named ADAR2; the deamination specificity of this enzyme has not been rigorously studied. Here we directly compare the specificity of human ADAR1 and ADAR2. We find that, like ADAR1, ADAR2 has a 5' neighbor preference (A approximately U > C = G), but, unlike ADAR1, also has a 3' neighbor preference (U = G > C = A). Simultaneous analysis of both neighbor preferences reveals that ADAR2 prefers certain trinucleotide sequences (UAU, AAG, UAG, AAU). In addition to characterizing ADAR2 preferences, we analyzed the fraction of adenosines deaminated in a given RNA at complete reaction, or the enzyme's selectivity. We find that ADAR1 and ADAR2 deaminate a given RNA with the same selectivity, and this appears to be dictated by features of the RNA substrate. Finally, we observed that Xenopus and human ADAR1 deaminate the same adenosines on all RNAs tested, emphasizing the similarity of ADAR1 in these two species. Our data add substantially to the understanding of ADAR2 specificity, and aid in efforts to predict which ADAR deaminates a given editing site adenosine in vivo." [Abstract]

Aruscavage PJ, Bass BL.
A phylogenetic analysis reveals an unusual sequence conservation within introns involved in RNA editing.
RNA 2000 Feb;6(2):257-69
"Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) are RNA editing enzymes that convert adenosines to inosines within cellular and viral RNAs. Certain glutamate receptor (gluR) pre-mRNAs are substrates for the enzymes in vivo. For example, at the R/G editing site of gluR-B, -C, and -D RNAs, ADARs change an arginine codon (AGA) to a glycine codon (IGA) so that two protein isoforms can be synthesized from a single encoded mRNA; the highly related gluR-A sequence is not edited at this site. To gain insight into what features of an RNA substrate are important for accurate and efficient editing by an ADAR, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of sequences required for editing at the R/G site. We observed highly conserved sequences that were shared by gluR-B, -C, and -D, but absent from gluR-A. Surprisingly, in contrast to results obtained in phylogenetic analyses of tRNA and rRNA, it was the bases in paired, helical regions whose identity was conserved, whereas bases in nonhelical regions varied, but maintained their nonhelical state. We speculate this pattern in part reflects constraints imposed by ADAR's unique specificity and gained support for our hypotheses with mutagenesis studies. Unexpectedly, we observed that some of the gluR introns were conserved beyond the sequences required for editing. The approximately 600-nt intron 13 of gluR-C was particularly remarkable, showing >94% nucleotide identity between human and chicken, organisms estimated to have diverged 310 million years ago." [Abstract]

5-HT2C RNA editing information is listed at this link.

Chen CX, Cho DS, Wang Q, Lai F, Carter KC, Nishikura K.
A third member of the RNA-specific adenosine deaminase gene family, ADAR3, contains both single- and double-stranded RNA binding domains.
RNA 2000 May;6(5):755-67
"Members of the double-stranded RNA- (dsRNA) specific adenosine deaminase gene family convert adenosine residues into inosines in dsRNA and are involved in A-to-I RNA editing of transcripts of glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits and serotonin receptor subtype 2C (5-HT(2C)R). We have isolated hADAR3, the third member of this class of human enzyme and investigated its editing site selectivity using in vitro RNA editing assay systems. As originally reported for rat ADAR3 or RED2, purified ADAR3 proteins could not edit GluR-B RNA at the "Q/R" site, the "R/G" site, and the intronic "hot spot" site. In addition, ADAR3 did not edit any of five sites discovered recently within the intracellular loop II region of 5-HT(2C)R RNAs, confirming its total lack of editing activity for currently known substrate RNAs. Filter-binding analyses revealed that ADAR3 is capable of binding not only to dsRNA but also to single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Deletion mutagenesis identified a region rich in arginine residues located in the N-terminus that is responsible for binding of ADAR3 to ssRNA. The presence of this ssRNA-binding domain as well as its expression in restricted brain regions and postmitotic neurons make ADAR3 distinct from the other two ADAR gene family members, editing competent ADAR1 and ADAR2. ADAR3 inhibited in vitro the activities of RNA editing enzymes of the ADAR gene family, raising the possibility of a regulatory role in RNA editing." [Abstract]

Daniel P. Morse, P. Joseph Aruscavage, and Brenda L. Bass
RNA hairpins in noncoding regions of human brain and Caenorhabditis elegans mRNA are edited by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA
PNAS 99: 7906-7911; published online before print as 10.1073/pnas.112704299
"Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) constitute a family of RNA-editing enzymes that convert adenosine to inosine within double-stranded regions of RNA. We previously developed a method to identify inosine-containing RNAs and used it to identify five ADAR substrates in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we use the same method to identify five additional C. elegans substrates, including three mRNAs that encode proteins known to affect neuronal functions. All 10 of the C. elegans substrates are edited in long stem-loop structures located in noncoding regions, and thus contrast with previously identified substrates of other organisms, in which ADARs target codons. To determine whether editing in noncoding regions was a conserved ADAR function, we applied our method to poly(A)+ RNA of human brain and identified 19 previously unknown ADAR substrates. The substrates were strikingly similar to those observed in C. elegans, since editing was confined to 3' untranslated regions, introns, and a noncoding RNA. Also similar to what was found in C. elegans, 15 of the 19 substrates were edited in repetitive elements. The identities of the newly identified ADAR substrates suggest that RNA editing may influence many biologically important processes, and that for many metazoa, A-to-I conversion in coding regions may be the exception rather than the rule." [Abstract]

Poulsen, Hanne, Nilsson, Jakob, Damgaard, Christian K., Egebjerg, Jan, Kjems, Jorgen
CRM1 Mediates the Export of ADAR1 through a Nuclear Export Signal within the Z-DNA Binding Domain
Mol. Cell. Biol. 2001 21: 7862-7871
"RNA editing of specific residues by adenosine deamination is a nuclear process catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR). Different promoters in the ADAR1 gene give rise to two forms of the protein: a constitutive promoter expresses a transcript encoding (c)ADAR1, and an interferon-induced promoter expresses a transcript encoding an N-terminally extended form, (i)ADAR1. Here we show that (c)ADAR1 is primarily nuclear whereas (i)ADAR1 encompasses a functional nuclear export signal in the N-terminal part and is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein. Mutation of the nuclear export signal or treatment with the CRM1-specific drug leptomycin B induces nuclear accumulation of (i)ADAR1 fused to the green fluorescent protein and increases the nuclear editing activity. In concurrence, CRM1 and RanGTP interact specifically with the (i)ADAR1 nuclear export signal to form a tripartite export complex in vitro. Furthermore, our data imply that nuclear import of (i)ADAR1 is mediated by at least two nuclear localization sequences. These results suggest that the nuclear editing activity of (i)ADAR1 is modulated by nuclear export." [Full Text]

Bass, Brenda L.
Annu. Rev. Biochem. 2002 71: 817-846
"ADARs are RNA editing enzymes that target double-stranded regions of nuclear-encoded RNA and viral RNA. These enzymes are particularly abundant in the nervous system, where they diversify the information encoded in the genome, for example, by altering codons in mRNAs. The functions of ADARs in known substrates suggest that the enzymes serve to fine-tune and optimize many biological pathways, in ways that we are only starting to imagine. ADARs are also interesting in regard to the remarkable double-stranded structures of their substrates and how enzyme specificity is achieved with little regard to sequence. This review summarizes ongoing investigations of the enzyme family and their substrates, focusing on biological function as well as biochemical mechanism." [Abstract]

Alan Herbert, and Alexander Rich
The role of binding domains for dsRNA and Z-DNA in the in vivo editing of minimal substrates by ADAR1
PNAS 98: 12132-12137, 2001.
"RNA editing changes the read-out of genetic information, increasing the number of different protein products that can be made from a single gene. One form involves the deamination of adenosine to form inosine, which is subsequently translated as guanosine. The reaction requires a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) substrate and is catalyzed by the adenosine deaminase that act on dsRNA (ADAR) family of enzymes. These enzymes possess dsRNA-binding domains (DRBM) and a catalytic domain. ADAR1 so far has been found only in vertebrates and is characterized by two Z-DNA-binding motifs, the biological function of which remains unknown. Here the role of the various functional domains of ADAR1 in determining the editing efficiency and specificity of ADAR1 is examined in cell-based assays. A variety of dsRNA substrates was tested. It was found that a 15-bp dsRNA stem with a single base mismatch was sufficient for editing. The particular adenosine modified could be varied by changing the position of the mismatch. Editing efficiency could be increased by placing multiple pyrimidines 5' to the edited adenosine. With longer substrates, editing efficiency also increased and was partly due to the use of DRBMs. Additional editing sites were also observed that clustered on the complementary strand 11-15 bp from the first. An unexpected finding was that the DRBMs are not necessary for the editing of the shorter 15-bp substrates. However, mutation of the Z-DNA-binding domains of ADAR1 decreased the efficiency with which such a substrate was edited." [Full Text]

Oleg Raitskin, Dan-Sung C. Cho, Joseph Sperling, Kazuko Nishikura, and Ruth Sperling
RNA editing activity is associated with splicing factors in lnRNP particles: The nuclear pre-mRNA processing machinery
PNAS 98: 6571-6576; published online before print as 10.1073/pnas.111153798
"Multiple members of the ADAR (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA) gene family are involved in A-to-I RNA editing. It has been speculated that they may form a large multicomponent protein complex. Possible candidates for such complexes are large nuclear ribonucleoprotein (lnRNP) particles. The lnRNP particles consist mainly of four spliceosomal subunits that assemble together with the pre-mRNA to form a large particle and thus are viewed as the naturally assembled pre-mRNA processing machinery. Here we investigated the presence of ADARs in lnRNP particles by Western blot analysis using anti-ADAR antibodies and by indirect immunoprecipitation. Both ADAR1 and ADAR2 were found associated with the spliceosomal components Sm and SR proteins within the lnRNP particles. The two ADARs, associated with lnRNP particles, were enzymatically active in site-selective A-to-I RNA editing. We demonstrate the association of ADAR RNA editing enzymes with physiological supramolecular complexes, the lnRNP particles." [Full Text]

Christian R. Eckmann, Andrea Neunteufl, Lydia Pfaffstetter, and Michael F. Jantsch
The Human But Not the Xenopus RNA-editing Enzyme ADAR1 Has an Atypical Nuclear Localization Signal and Displays the Characteristics of a Shuttling Protein
Mol. Biol. Cell 2001 12: 1911-1924.
"The RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 (adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA) is a bona fide nuclear enzyme that has been cloned from several vertebrate species. Putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs) have been identified in the aminoterminal regions of both human and Xenopus ADAR1. Here we show that neither of these predicted NLSs is biologically active. Instead, we could identify a short basic region located upstream of the RNA-binding domains of Xenopus ADAR1 to be necessary and sufficient for nuclear import. In contrast, the homologous region in human ADAR1 does not display NLS activity. Instead, we could map an NLS in human ADAR1 that overlaps with its third double-stranded RNA-binding domain. Interestingly, the NLS activity displayed by this double-stranded RNA-binding domain does not depend on RNA binding, therefore showing a dual function for this domain. Furthermore, nuclear accumulation of human (hs) ADAR1 is transcription dependent and can be stimulated by LMB, an inhibitor of Crm1-dependent nuclear export, indicating that hsADAR1 can move between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Regulated nuclear import and export of hsADAR1 can provide an excellent mechanism to control nuclear concentration of this editing enzyme thereby preventing hyperediting of structured nuclear RNAs." [Full Text]

Yong Liu, Ming Lei, and Charles E. Samuel
Chimeric double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1 proteins reveal functional selectivity of double-stranded RNA-binding domains from ADAR1 and protein kinase PKR
PNAS 97: 12541-12546, 2000.
"The RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1) and the RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) are both interferon-inducible double-stranded (ds) RNA-binding proteins. ADAR1, an RNA editing enzyme that converts adenosine to inosine, possesses three copies of a dsRNA-binding motif (dsRBM). PKR, a regulator of translation, has two copies of the highly conserved dsRBM motif. To assess the functional selectivity of the dsRBM motifs in ADAR1, we constructed and characterized chimeric proteins in which the dsRBMs of ADAR1 were substituted with those of PKR. Recombinant PKR-ADAR1 chimeras retained significant RNA adenosine deaminase activity measured with a synthetic dsRNA substrate when the spacer region between the RNA-binding and catalytic domains of the deaminase was exactly preserved. However, with natural substrates, substitution of the first two dsRBMs of ADAR1 with those from PKR dramatically reduced site-selective editing activity at the R/G and (+)60 sites of the glutamate receptor B subunit pre-RNA and completely abolished editing of the serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) pre-RNA at the A site. Chimeric deaminases possessing only the two dsRBMs from PKR were incapable of editing either glutamate receptor B subunit or 5-HT2CR natural sites but edited synthetic dsRNA. Finally, RNA antagonists of PKR significantly inhibited the activity of chimeric PKR-ADAR1 proteins relative to wild-type ADAR1, further demonstrating the functional selectivity of the dsRBM motifs." [Full Text]

Higuchi M, Maas S, Single FN, Hartner J, Rozov A, Burnashev N, Feldmeyer D, Sprengel R, Seeburg PH.
Point mutation in an AMPA receptor gene rescues lethality in mice deficient in the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR2.
Nature 2000 Jul 6;406(6791):78-81
"RNA editing by site-selective deamination of adenosine to inosine alters codons and splicing in nuclear transcripts, and therefore protein function. ADAR2 (refs 7, 8) is a candidate mammalian editing enzyme that is widely expressed in brain and other tissues, but its RNA substrates are unknown. Here we have studied ADAR2-mediated RNA editing by generating mice that are homozygous for a targeted functional null allele. Editing in ADAR2-/- mice was substantially reduced at most of 25 positions in diverse transcripts; the mutant mice became prone to seizures and died young. The impaired phenotype appeared to result entirely from a single underedited position, as it reverted to normal when both alleles for the underedited transcript were substituted with alleles encoding the edited version exonically. The critical position specifies an ion channel determinant, the Q/R site, in AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate) receptor GluR-B pre-messenger RNA. We conclude that this transcript is the physiologically most important substrate of ADAR2." [Abstract]

Herbert A, Rich A.
Left-handed Z-DNA: structure and function.
Genetica 1999;106(1-2):37-47
"Z-DNA is a high energy conformer of B-DNA that forms in vivo during transcription as a result of torsional strain generated by a moving polymerase. An understanding of the biological role of Z-DNA has advanced with the discovery that the RNA editing enzyme double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase type I (ADAR1) has motifs specific for the Z-DNA conformation. Editing by ADAR1 requires a double-stranded RNA substrate. In the cases known, the substrate is formed by folding an intron back onto the exon that is targeted for modification. The use of introns to direct processing of exons requires that editing occurs before splicing. Recognition of Z-DNA by ADAR1 may allow editing of nascent transcripts to be initiated immediately after transcription, ensuring that editing and splicing are performed in the correct sequence. Structural characterization of the Z-DNA binding domain indicates that it belongs to the winged helix-turn-helix class of proteins and is similar to the globular domain of histone-H5." [Abstract]

Rueter SM, Dawson TR, Emeson RB.
Regulation of alternative splicing by RNA editing.
Nature 1999 May 6;399(6731):75-80
"The enzyme ADAR2 is a double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase which is involved in the editing of mammalian messenger RNAs by the site-specific conversion of adenosine to inosine. Here we identify several rat ADAR2 mRNAs produced as a result of two distinct alternative splicing events. One such splicing event uses a proximal 3' acceptor site, adding 47 nucleotides to the ADAR2 coding region, changing the predicted reading frame of the mature ADAR2 transcript. Nucleotide-sequence analysis of ADAR2 genomic DNA revealed the presence of adenosine-adenosine (AA) and adenosine-guanosine (AG) dinucleotides at these proximal and distal alternative 3' acceptor sites, respectively. Use of the proximal 3' acceptor depends upon the ability of ADAR2 to edit its own pre-mRNA, converting the intronic AA to an adenosine-inosine (AI) dinucleotide which effectively mimics the highly conserved AG sequence normally found at 3' splice junctions. Our observations indicate that RNA editing can serve as a mechanism for regulating alternative splicing and they suggest a novel strategy by which ADAR2 can modulate its own expression." [Abstract]

Cyril X. George, and Charles E. Samuel
Human RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1 transcripts possess alternative exon 1 structures that initiate from different promoters, one constitutively active and the other interferon inducible
PNAS 96: 4621-4626, 1999.
"RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1) catalyzes the deamination of adenosine to inosine in viral and cellular RNAs. Two size forms of the ADAR1 editing enzyme are known, an IFN-inducible approximately 150-kDa protein and a constitutively expressed N-terminally truncated approximately 110-kDa protein. We have now identified alternative exon 1 structures of human ADAR1 transcripts that initiate from unique promoters, one constitutively expressed and the other IFN inducible. Cloning and sequence analyses of 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) cDNAs from human placenta established a linkage between exon 2 of ADAR1 and two alternative exon 1 structures, designated herein as exon 1A and exon 1B. Analysis of RNA isolated from untreated and IFN-treated human amnion cells demonstrated that exon 1B-exon 2 transcripts were synthesized in the absence of IFN and were not significantly altered in amount by IFN treatment. By contrast, exon 1A-exon 2 transcripts were IFN inducible. Transient transfection analysis with reporter constructs led to the identification of two functional promoters, designated PC and PI. Exon 1B transcripts were initiated from the PC promoter whose activity in transient transfection reporter assays was not increased by IFN treatment. The 107-nt exon 1B mapped 14.5 kb upstream of exon 2. The 201-nt exon 1A that mapped 5.4 kb upstream of exon 2 was initiated from the interferon-inducible PI promoter. These results suggest that two promoters, one IFN inducible and the other not, initiate transcription of the ADAR1 gene, and that alternative splicing of unique exon 1 structures to a common exon 2 junction generates RNA transcripts with the deduced coding capacity for either the constitutively expressed approximately 110-kDa ADAR1 protein (exon 1B) or the interferon-induced approximately 150-kDa ADAR1 protein (exon 1A)." [Full Text]

Davidson, Nicholas O.
The challenge of target sequence specificity in C->U RNA editing
J. Clin. Invest. 2002 109: 291-294 [Full Text]

Ohman M, Kallman AM, Bass BL.
In vitro analysis of the binding of ADAR2 to the pre-mRNA encoding the GluR-B R/G site.
RNA 2000 May;6(5):687-97
"The ADAR family of RNA-editing enzymes deaminates adenosines within RNA that is completely or largely double stranded. In mammals, most of the characterized substrates encode receptors involved in neurotransmission, and these substrates are thought to be targeted by the mammalian enzymes ADAR1 and ADAR2. Although some ADAR substrates are deaminated very promiscuously, mammalian glutamate receptor B (gluR-B) pre-mRNA is deaminated at a few specific adenosines. Like most double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding proteins, ADARs bind to many different sequences, but few studies have directly measured and compared binding affinities. We have attempted to determine if ADAR deamination specificity occurs because the enzymes bind to targeted regions with higher affinities. To explore this question we studied binding of rat ADAR2 to a region of rat gluR-B pre-mRNA that contains the R/G editing site, and compared a wild-type molecule with one containing mutations that decreased R/G site editing. Although binding affinity to the two sequences was almost identical, footprinting studies indicate ADAR2 binds to the wild-type RNA at a discrete region surrounding the editing site, whereas binding to the mutant appeared nonspecific." [Abstract]

Lehmann KA, Bass BL.
The importance of internal loops within RNA substrates of ADAR1.
J Mol Biol 1999 Aug 6;291(1):1-13
"Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) are a family of RNA editing enzymes that convert adenosines to inosines within double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although ADARs deaminate perfectly base-paired dsRNA promiscuously, deamination is limited to a few, selected adenosines within dsRNA containing mismatches, bulges and internal loops. As a first step in understanding how RNA structural features promote selectivity, we investigated the role of internal loops within ADAR substrates. We observed that a dsRNA helix is deaminated at the same sites whether it exists as a free molecule or is flanked by internal loops. Thus, internal loops delineate helix ends for ADAR1. Since ADAR1 deaminates short RNAs at fewer adenosines than long RNAs, loops decrease the number of deaminations within an RNA by dividing a long RNA into shorter substrates. For a series of symmetric internal loops related in sequence, larger loops (>/=six nucleotides) acted as helix ends, whereas smaller loops (</=four nucleotides) did not. Our work provides the first information about how secondary structure within ADAR substrates dictates selectivity, and suggests a rational approach for delineating minimal substrates for RNAs deaminated by ADARs in vivo. Copyright 1999 Academic Press." [Abstract]

Yi-Brunozzi, HY, Easterwood, LM, Kamilar, GM, Beal, PA
Synthetic substrate analogs for the RNA-editing adenosine deaminase ADAR-2
Nucl. Acids. Res. 1999 27: 2912-2917
"We have synthesized structural analogs of a natural RNA editing substrate and compared editing reactions of these substrates by recombinant ADAR-2, an RNA-editing adenosine deaminase. Deamination rates were shown to be sensitive to structural changes at the 2[prime]-carbon of the edited adenosine. Methylation of the 2[prime]-OH caused a large decrease in deamination rate, whereas 2[prime]-deoxyadenosine and 2[prime]-deoxy-2[prime]-fluoroadenosine were deaminated at a rate similar to adenosine. In addition, a duplex containing as few as 19 bp of the stem structure adjacent to the R/G editing site of the GluR-B pre-mRNA supports deamination of the R/G adenosine by ADAR-2. This identification and initial characterization of synthetic RNA editing substrate analogs further defines structural elements in the RNA that are important for the deamination reaction and sets the stage for additional detailed structural, thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the ADAR-2 reaction." [Full Text]

Paul, Michael S., Bass, Brenda L.
Inosine exists in mRNA at tissue-specific levels and is most abundant in brain mRNA
EMBO J. 1998 17: 1120-1127
"The general view that mRNA does not contain inosine has been challenged by the discovery of adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs). Although inosine monophosphate (IMP) cannot be detected in crude preparations of nucleotides derived from poly(A)+ RNA, here we show it is readily detectable and quantifiable once it is purified away from the Watson-Crick nucleotides. We report that IMP is present in mRNA at tissue-specific levels that correlate with the levels of ADAR mRNA expression. The amount of IMP present in poly(A)+ RNA isolated from various mammalian tissues suggests adenosine deamination may play an important role in regulating gene expression, particularly in brain, where we estimate one IMP is present for every 17 000 ribonucleotides." [Abstract]

Lai, F, Chen, CX, Carter, KC, Nishikura, K
Editing of glutamate receptor B subunit ion channel RNAs by four alternatively spliced DRADA2 double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminases
Mol. Cell. Biol. 1997 17: 2413-2424
"Double-stranded (ds) RNA-specific adenosine deaminase converts adenosine residues into inosines in dsRNA and edits transcripts of certain cellular and viral genes such as glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits and hepatitis delta antigen. The first member of this type of deaminase, DRADA1, has been recently cloned based on the amino acid sequence information derived from biochemically purified proteins. Our search for DRADA1-like genes through expressed sequence tag databases led to the cloning of the second member of this class of enzyme, DRADA2, which has a high degree of sequence homology to DRADA1 yet exhibits a distinctive RNA editing site selectivity. There are four differentially spliced isoforms of human DRADA2. These different isoforms of recombinant DRADA2 proteins, including one which is a human homolog of the recently reported rat RED1, were analyzed in vitro for their GluR B subunit (GluR-B) RNA editing site selectivity. As originally reported for rat RED1, the DRADA2a and -2b isoforms edit GluR-B RNA efficiently at the so-called Q/R site, whereas DRADA1 barely edits this site. In contrast, the R/G site of GluR-B RNA was edited efficiently by the DRADA2a and -2b isoforms as well as DRADA1. Isoforms DRADA2c and -2d, which have a distinctive truncated shorter C-terminal structure, displayed weak adenosine-to-inosine conversion activity but no editing activity tested at three known sites of GluR-B RNA. The possible role of these DRADA2c and -2d isoforms in the regulatory mechanism of RNA editing is discussed." [Abstract/Full Text]

Wang Y, Zeng Y, Murray JM, Nishikura K.
Genomic organization and chromosomal location of the human dsRNA adenosine deaminase gene: the enzyme for glutamate-activated ion channel RNA editing.
J Mol Biol 1995 Nov 24;254(2):184-95
"The structure of the human gene encoding the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) adenosine deaminase (DRADA) was characterized. This nuclear localized enzyme is involved in the RNA editing required for the expression of certain subtypes of glutamate-gated ion channel subunits. The DRADA gene span 30 kb pairs and harbors 15 exons. The transcription of the DRADA gene driven by the putative promoter region, which contains no typical TATA or CCAAT box-like sequences, is initiated at multiple sites, 164 to 216 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon. The three dsRNA binding motifs (DRBM), 70 amino acid residues long, are each encoded by two exons plus an intervening sequence that interrupts the motif at the identical amino acid position. This finding is consistent with the notion that the dsRNA binding domains may be composed of two separate functional subdomains. Fluorescent in situ hybridization localized the DRADA gene on the long arm chromosome 1, region q21. The gene structure and sequence information reported in this study will facilitate the investigation of involvement of DRADA in hereditary diseases that may be the result of malfunction of glutamate-gated ion channels." [Abstract]

Keller W, Wolf J, Gerber A.
Editing of messenger RNA precursors and of tRNAs by adenosine to inosine conversion.
FEBS Lett 1999 Jun 4;452(1-2):71-6
"The double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminases ADAR1 and ADAR2 convert adenosine (A) residues to inosine (I) in messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNA). Their main physiological substrates are pre-mRNAs encoding subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors or serotonin receptors in the brain. ADAR1 and ADAR2 have similar sequence features, including double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs) and a deaminase domain. The tRNA-specific adenosine deaminases Tad1p and Tad2p/Tad3p modify A 37 in tRNA-Ala1 of eukaryotes and the first nucleotide of the anticodon (A 34) of several bacterial and eukaryotic tRNAs, respectively. Tad1p is related to ADAR1 and ADAR2 throughout its sequence but lacks dsRBDs. Tad1p could be the ancestor of ADAR1 and ADAR2. The deaminase domains of ADAR1, ADAR2 and Tad1p are very similar and resemble the active site domains of cytosine/cytidine deaminases." [Abstract]


->Back to Home<-

Recent ADAR Research

1) Kleinman CL, Adoue V, Majewski J
RNA editing of protein sequences: A rare event in human transcriptomes.
RNA. 2012 Jul 25;
RNA editing, the post-transcriptional recoding of RNA molecules, has broad potential implications for gene expression. Several recent studies of human transcriptomes reported a high number of differences between DNA and RNA, including events not explained by any known mammalian RNA-editing mechanism. However, RNA-editing estimates differ by orders of magnitude, since technical limitations of high-throughput sequencing have been sometimes overlooked and sequencing errors have been confounded with editing sites. Here, we developed a series of computational approaches to analyze the extent of this process in the human transcriptome, identifying and addressing the major sources of error of a large-scale approach. We apply the detection pipeline to deep sequencing data from lymphoblastoid cell lines expressing ADAR1 at high levels, and show that noncanonical editing is unlikely to occur, with at least 85%-98% of candidate sites being the result of sequencing and mapping artifacts. By implementing a method to detect intronless gene duplications, we show that most noncanonical sites previously validated originate in read mismapping within these regions. Canonical A-to-G editing, on the other hand, is widespread in noncoding Alu sequences and rare in exonic and coding regions, where the validation rate also dropped. The genomic distribution of editing sites we find, together with the lack of consistency across studies or biological replicates, suggest a minor quantitative impact of this process in the overall recoding of protein sequences. We propose instead a primary role of ADAR1 protein as a defense system against elements potentially damaging to the genome. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

2) Kantaputra PN, Chinadet W, Ohazama A, Kono M
Dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria with long hair on the forearms, hypo/hyperpigmented hair, and dental anomalies: Report of a novel ADAR1 mutation.
Am J Med Genet A. 2012 Jul 20;
We report on a father and his two children who are affected with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria (DSH). Mutation analysis of ADAR1 gene demonstrated a novel splice acceptor site mutation in intron 10, IVS10-2A>C. The hair on the forearm of the affected father became longer, larger in diameter, and hypopigmented (white) after age 40 years. Hyperpigmented hair was also found in normal and hypopigmented skin. The colors of the hair and the skin did not correlate. Transmission electron micrography of cortical keratinocytes of the hair follicles showed that normal hair contained more keratinocytes than those of hyperpigmented and hypopigmented hair. The keratinocytes of the hyperpigmented hair were larger than those of normal and hypopigmented hair and those of the normal hair were larger than those of the hypopigmented hair. The affected daughter had dens evaginatus of the mandibular right second premolar and the son had dens invaginatus of the maxillary permanent lateral incisors. Expression of Adar1 gene during mouse tooth development is demonstrated. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

3) Gurung CK, Dahal R, Khanal P, Nepal S, Jaiswal AK
Pattern of poisoning cases in a hospital in a Terai district of central Nepal.
Nepal Med Coll J. 2011 Sep;13(3):160-3.
Poisoning is a major global health problem and is one of the major causes of hospitalization through emergency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of poisoning cases admitted to emergency department over a one year period. A hospital based study was carried out in the emergency department, Mahendra Adarsha Chikitsalaya, Chitwan analyzing the data of the poisoning cases attended for one year duration by searching all the medical records. A total of 921 poisoning cases presented to emergency department in the year 2007. The female to male ratio was 1.17:1. Most of poisoning occurred in the age group 15-24 years. Snake bite was the commonest form of poisoning amongst all cases. By occupation, 46.0% cases were in farmers. Accidental poisoning prevailed over intentional poisoning. Seasonal trend revealed maximum cases being in summer (42.4%). Poisoning shows seasonal trend and hence proper intervention is required in community level. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

4) Adaramoye OA, Oloyede GK
Effect of moderate ethanol administration on biochemical indices in streptozotocin-diabetic Wistar rats.
West Indian Med J. 2012 Jan;61(1):3-9.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

5) Yang C, Su J, Li Q, Zhang R, Rao Y
Identification and expression profiles of ADAR1 gene, responsible for RNA editing, in responses to dsRNA and GCRV challenge in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).
Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012 Jul 14;
ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) is an RNA editing enzyme that targets both coding and noncoding dsRNAs (double stranded RNAs) and converts adenosine to inosine, which is read by translation machinery and by polymerases during RNA-dependent RNA replication as if it is guanosine. This editing is a widespread post-transcriptional modification event in animals. In this study, we identified the full-length cDNA sequence of Ctenopharyngodon idella ADAR1 (designated as CiADAR1) and detected the mRNA expression patterns in response to dsRNA (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid sodium salt, poly(I:C)) and grass carp reovirus (GCRV). CiADAR1 is a large gene in size, consisting of 4833 nucleotides encoding a protein of 1392 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains seven putative domains: one proline-rich region (Pro-R), two Z-DNA-binding domains (Zalpha), three dsRNA binding motifs (DSRM) and one tRNA-specific and dsRNA adenosine deaminase domain (ADEAMc). It is most homologous to Danio rerio ADAR (E-value = 0.0, identities = 80% (1110/1395)), also close homology to Homo sapiens ADAR1 (E-value = 0.0, identities = (47%) 530/1122). CiADAR1 mRNA was investigated in fifteen tissues, and was low expressed in muscle and head kidney tissues, high in blood and spleen tissues by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). mRNA expressions of CiADAR1 were significantly up-regulated and reached peak at 24 h post GCRV challenge in vivo and in vitro (P < 0.05). After poly(I:C) stimulation at different concentrations, CiADAR1 transcripts were rapidly and significantly up-regulated and recovered in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners (P < 0.05). The results indicate CiADAR1 was implicated in the antiviral immune response and laid the foundation for further studies on functions and mechanisms of RNA editing in fishes. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

6) Tariq A, Jantsch MF
Transcript Diversification in the Nervous System: A to I RNA Editing in CNS Function and Disease Development.
Front Neurosci. 2012;6:99.
RNA editing by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA converts adenosines to inosines in coding and non-coding regions of mRNAs. Inosines are interpreted as guanosines and hence, this type of editing can change codons, alter splice patterns, or influence the fate of an RNA. A to I editing is most abundant in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, targets for this type of nucleotide modification frequently encode receptors and channels. In many cases, the editing-induced amino acid exchanges alter the properties of the receptors and channels. Consistently, changes in editing patterns are frequently found associated with diseases of the CNS. In this review we describe the mechanisms of RNA editing and focus on target mRNAs of editing that are functionally relevant to normal and aberrant CNS activity. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

7) Quatrano NA, Loechner KJ
Dermatologic manifestations of endocrine disorders.
Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012 Aug;24(4):487-93.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

8) Ambi US, Adarsh ES, Hatti R, Samalad V
Anesthetic management of Shah-Waardenburg syndrome: Experience of two cases and review of literature.
Saudi J Anaesth. 2012 Apr;6(2):172-4.
Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomally inherited and genetically heterogeneous disorder of neural crest cell development. Literature regarding the anesthetic management of these cases is limited. We present 2 cases of Shah-Waardenburg syndrome and discuss them in the context of review of previously published cases. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

9) Bjarnarson SP, Adarna BC, Benonisson H, Del Giudice G, Jonsdottir I
The Adjuvant LT-K63 Can Restore Delayed Maturation of Follicular Dendritic Cells and Poor Persistence of Both Protein- and Polysaccharide-Specific Antibody-Secreting Cells in Neonatal Mice.
J Immunol. 2012 Aug 1;189(3):1265-73.
Ab responses in early life are low and short-lived; therefore, induction of protective immunity requires repeated vaccinations. One of the major limitations in early-life immunity is delayed maturation of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which play a central role in mediating the germinal center (GC) reaction leading to production of Ab-secreting cells (AbSCs). We assessed whether a nontoxic mutant of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-K63) and CpG1826 as model adjuvants could accelerate FDC maturation and immune response in neonatal mice, using a pneumococcal polysaccharide of serotype 1 conjugated to tetanus toxoid (Pnc1-TT) as a model vaccine. In neonatal NMRI mice, a single dose of Pnc1-TT coadministered with LT-K63 enhanced Pnc1-TT-induced GC reaction. In contrast, CpG1826 had no effect. Accordingly, LT-K63, but not CpG1826, accelerated the maturation of FDC networks, detected by FDC-M2(+) staining, characteristic for adult-like FDCs. This coincided with migration of MOMA-1(+) macrophages into the GCs that can enhance GC reaction and B cell activation. The FDC-M2(+) FDC networks colocalized with enhanced expression of TNF-?, which is critical for the maintenance of mature FDCs and is poorly expressed in neonates. The accelerated maturation of FDC networks correlated with increased frequency and prolonged persistence of polysaccharide- and protein-specific IgG(+) AbSCs in spleen and bone marrow. Our data show for the first time, to our knowledge, that an adjuvant (LT-K63) can overcome delayed maturation of FDCs in neonates, enhance the GC reaction, and prolong the persistence of vaccine-specific AbSCs in the BM. These properties are attractive for parenteral vaccination in early life. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

10) Finestone AS, Eshed I, Freedman Y, Beer Y, Bar-Sever Z, Kots Y, Adar E, Mann G
[Guidelines for wise utilization of knee imaging].
Harefuah. 2012 Feb;151(2):118-23, 125.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

11) Widgerow AD, Kalaria S
Pain mediators and wound healing-Establishing the connection.
Burns. 2012 Jun 25;
Pain accompanies every disruption of the skin surface in a normal sensate individual. The intensity and duration of the pain varies depending on the nature of trauma, the healing trajectory and various host factors. Pain mediator release is the mechanism for pain perception following peripheral stimulus and central interpretation. The various mediators may have promoting effects on wound healing in the short term, but it appears that protracted release of these mediators may well have detrimental effects on wound healing. The exaggerated release of pain mediators may result in nociceptor hypersensitization, hyperinflammatory cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) changes, and in some cases, the potential for a fibrotic healing pattern. This relates to an imbalance between mediators with differing healing characteristics arising in certain pathological conditions. In this respect, it may be worth examining pain mediator agonists or antagonists, not only on compassionate grounds of pain control, but relating to the potential effects on overall wound healing. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

12) Adar E, Inbar M, Gal S, Doron N, Zhang ZQ, Palevsky E
Plant-feeding and non-plant feeding phytoseiids: differences in behavior and cheliceral morphology.
Exp Appl Acarol. 2012 Jun 23;
In previous studies plant feeding behavior of plant- and non-plant feeding phytoseiids was never examined directly. Moreover, in these studies the cheliceral morphology of phytoseiids was not associated with their ability to feed on plants. In the present study, we monitored the plant-feeding behavior of Euseius scutalis and Amblyseius swirskii. Only E. scutalis was observed penetrating the leaf surface with the movable digit and feeding. Second, using a dye and coloring the gut as an indicator for feeding, we found that E. scutalis pierced an artificial membrane and fed whereas A. swirskii did not. Finally, to identify morphological characteristics typical of plant feeders versus non-plant feeders, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the adaxial (inner) profile of the chelicerae in 13 phytoseiid species. The only parameter that distinguished between plant- and non-plant feeders was the ratio of the dorsal perimeter length of the fixed digit to the ventral perimeter length of the movable digit. Plant-feeders were characterized by ratio values greater than one whereas the values for non plant-feeders were lower than one. We suggest that a shorter and less curved movable digit, expressed by a high ratio, will facilitate the penetration of the leaf surface. Cheliceral traits proposed here as typical of plant feeders, were observed for five genera, indicating that plant-feeding may be more common in the Phytoseiidae than previously reported. We propose that the ability to feed on plants be added as a cross type trait of phytoseiid life-style types. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

13) Khan P, Barik AR, Vinod EM, Sangunni KS, Jain H, Adarsh KV
Coexistence of fast photodarkening and slow photobleaching in Ge<sub>19</sub>As<sub>21</sub>Se<sub>60</sub> thin films.
Opt Express. 2012 May 21;20(11):12416-21.
We experimentally demonstrate the coexistence of two opposite photo-effects, viz. fast photodarkening (PD) and slow photobleaching (PB) in Ge19As21Se60 thin films, when illuminated with a laser of wavelength 671 nm. PD appears to begin instantaneously upon light illumination and saturates in tens of seconds. By comparison, PB is a slower process that starts only after PD has saturated. Both PD and PB follow stretched exponetial dependence on time. Modeling of overall change as a linear sum of two contributions suggests that the changes in As and Ge parts of glass network respond to light effectively indepndent of each other. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

14) Li B, Dong L, Wang B, Cai L, Jiang N, Peng L
Cell Type-Specific Gene Expression and Editing Responses to Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment in the In Vivo Mouse Brain and Their Relevance for Stress-Induced Anhedonia.
Neurochem Res. 2012 Jun 19;
Recently developed methods for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of freshly-isolated brain cells from transgenic mice combining fluorescent signals with cell type-specific markers allow cell-type separation. Based upon previous observations in primary cultures of mouse astrocytes we treated transgenic mice tagged with a neuron-specific or an astrocyte-specific marker with fluoxetine, either acute (10 mg/kg for 2 h) or chronic (10 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks). Acute treatment upregulated cfos and fosB mRNA expression in astrocytes and neurons. Chronic effects on astrocytes replicated those demonstrated in cultures, i.e., upregulation of mRNA and/or protein expression of 5-HT(2B) receptors (5-HT(2B)R), and GluK2 receptors, and of cPLA(2a) and ADAR2, together with increased GluK2 and 5-HT(2B)R editing. Neurons showed increased GluK4 and 5-HT(2C) receptor expression. To further correlate these findings with major depression we compared the changes in gene expression with those in a mouse model of anhedonia. Three out of 4 genes up-regulated in astrocytes by fluoxetine were down-regulated, whereas the neuronally upregulated 5-HT(2C) receptor gene showed no change. References are made to recent review papers discussing potential relations between observed fluoxetine effects and clinical effects of SSRIs, emphasizing that all 5 clinically used SSRIs have identical and virtually equipotent effects on cultured astrocytes. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

15) Cox HC, Lea RA, Bellis C, Carless M, Dyer TD, Curran J, Charlesworth J, Macgregor S, Nyholt D, Chasman D, Ridker PM, Schürks M, Blangero J, Griffiths LR
A genome-wide analysis of 'Bounty' descendants implicates several novel variants in migraine susceptibility.
Neurogenetics. 2012 Jun 8;
Migraine is a common neurological disease with a complex genetic aetiology. The disease affects ~12?% of the Caucasian population and females are three times more likely than males to be diagnosed. In an effort to identify loci involved in migraine susceptibility, we performed a pedigree-based genome-wide association study of the isolated population of Norfolk Island, which has a high prevalence of migraine. This unique population originates from a small number of British and Polynesian founders who are descendents of the Bounty mutiny and forms a very large multigenerational pedigree (Bellis et al.; Human Genetics, 124(5):543-5542, 2008). These population genetic features may facilitate disease gene mapping strategies (Peltonen et al.; Nat Rev Genet, 1(3):182-90, 2000. In this study, we identified a high heritability of migraine in the Norfolk Island population (h (2)?=?0.53, P?=?0.016). We performed a pedigree-based GWAS and utilised a statistical and pathological prioritisation approach to implicate a number of variants in migraine. An SNP located in the zinc finger protein 555 (ZNF555) gene (rs4807347) showed evidence of statistical association in our Norfolk Island pedigree (P?=?9.6?×?10(-6)) as well as replication in a large independent and unrelated cohort with >500 migraineurs. In addition, we utilised a biological prioritisation to implicate four SNPs, in within the ADARB2 gene, two SNPs within the GRM7 gene and a single SNP in close proximity to a HTR7 gene. Association of SNPs within these neurotransmitter-related genes suggests a disrupted serotoninergic system that is perhaps specific to the Norfolk Island pedigree, but that might provide clues to understanding migraine more generally. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

16) Henderson LJ, Narasipura SD, Adarichev V, Kashanchi F, Al-Harthi L
Identification of novel TCF-4 binding sites on the HIV LTR which associate with TCF-4, β-catenin and SMAR1 to repress HIV transcription.
J Virol. 2012 Jun 6;
Molecular regulation of HIV transcription is a multifaceted process dictated in part by abundance of cellular transcription factors that induce or repress HIV promoter activity. ?-catenin partners with members of the TCF/LEF transcription factors to regulate gene expression. The interaction between ?-catenin and TCF-4 is linked to inhibition of HIV replication in multiple cell types, including lymphocytes and astrocytes. We evaluated here the molecular mechanism by which ?-catenin/TCF-4 repress HIV replication. We identified for the first time multiple TCF-4 binding sites at -336,-143, +66, and +186 relative to the transcription initiation site on the HIV LTR. Two of the sites (-143 and +66) were present in approximately 1/3(rd) of 500 HIV-1 isolates examined. Although all four sites could bind to TCF-4, the strongest association occurred at -143. Deletion and/or mutation of -143 in conjunction with ?-catenin or TCF-4 knockdown in cells stably expressing an LTR reporter construct enhanced basal HIV promoter activity by five-fold, but had no effect on Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV LTR. We also found that, TCF-4, ?-catenin, and the nuclear matrix binding protein SMAR1 tether at -143nt site on the HIV LTR to inhibit HIV promoter activity. Collectively, these data indicate that TCF-4 and ?-catenin at -143 associate with SMAR1 which is likely to pull the HIV DNA segment into nuclear matrix and away from transcriptional machinery leading to repression of basal HIV LTR transcription. These studies point to novel avenues for regulation of HIV replication by manipulation of ?-catenin signaling within cells. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

17) Warf MB, Shepherd BA, Johnson WE, Bass BL
Effects of ADARs on small RNA processing pathways in C. elegans.
Genome Res. 2012 Jun 6;
Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) are RNA editing enzymes that convert adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). To evaluate effects of ADARs on small RNAs that derive from dsRNA precursors, we performed deep-sequencing, comparing small RNAs from wild-type and ADAR mutant Caenorhabditis elegans. While editing in small RNAs was rare, at least 40% of microRNAs had altered levels in at least one ADAR mutant strain, and miRNAs with significantly altered levels had mRNA targets with correspondingly affected levels. About 40% of siRNAs derived from endogenous genes (endo-siRNAs) also had altered levels in at least one mutant strain, including 63% of Dicer-dependent endo-siRNAs. The 26G class of endo-siRNAs was significantly affected by ADARs, and many altered 26G loci had intronic reads and histone modifications associated with transcriptional silencing. Our data indicate that ADARs, through both direct and indirect mechanisms, are important for maintaining wild-type levels of many small RNAs in C. elegans. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

18) Rodriguez J, Menet JS, Rosbash M
Nascent-seq indicates widespread cotranscriptional RNA editing in Drosophila.
Mol Cell. 2012 Jul 13;47(1):27-37.
The RNA editing enzyme ADAR chemically modifies adenosine (A) to inosine (I), which is interpreted by the ribosome as a guanosine. Here we assess cotranscriptional A-to-I editing in Drosophila by isolating nascent RNA from adult fly heads and subjecting samples to high throughput sequencing. There are a large number of edited sites within nascent exons. Nascent RNA from an ADAR-null strain was also sequenced, indicating that almost all A-to-I events require ADAR. Moreover, mRNA editing levels correlate with editing levels within the cognate nascent RNA sequence, indicating that the extent of editing is set cotranscriptionally. Surprisingly, the nascent data also identify an excess of intronic over exonic editing sites. These intronic sites occur preferentially within introns that are poorly spliced cotranscriptionally, suggesting a link between editing and splicing. We conclude that ADAR-mediated editing is more widespread than previously indicated and largely occurs cotranscriptionally. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

19) Shlush LI, Chapal-Ilani N, Adar R, Pery N, Maruvka Y, Spiro A, Shouval R, Rowe JM, Tzukerman M, Bercovich D, Izraeli S, Marcucci G, Bloomfield CD, Zuckerman T, Skorecki K, Shapiro E
Cell lineage analysis of acute leukemia relapse uncovers the role of replication-rate heterogeneity and microsatellite instability.
Blood. 2012 Jul 19;120(3):603-12.
Human cancers display substantial intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, which facilitates tumor survival under changing microenvironmental conditions. Tumor substructure and its effect on disease progression and relapse are incompletely understood. In the present study, a high-throughput method that uses neutral somatic mutations accumulated in individual cells to reconstruct cell lineage trees was applied to hundreds of cells of human acute leukemia harvested from multiple patients at diagnosis and at relapse. The reconstructed cell lineage trees of patients with acute myeloid leukemia showed that leukemia cells at relapse were shallow (divide rarely) compared with cells at diagnosis and were closely related to their stem cell subpopulation, implying that in these instances relapse might have originated from rarely dividing stem cells. In contrast, among patients with acute lymphoid leukemia, no differences in cell depth were observed between diagnosis and relapse. In one case of chronic myeloid leukemia, at blast crisis, most of the cells at relapse were mismatch-repair deficient. In almost all leukemia cases, > 1 lineage was observed at relapse, indicating that diverse mechanisms can promote relapse in the same patient. In conclusion, diverse relapse mechanisms can be observed by systematic reconstruction of cell lineage trees of patients with leukemia. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

20) Widgerow AD
Bioengineered matrices--part 2: focal adhesion, integrins, and the fibroblast effect.
Ann Plast Surg. 2012 Jun;68(6):574-8.
Initial efforts at biologic skin replacement strategies were mainly directed toward keratinocyte regeneration and epithelial replacement. It soon became evident that without a good dermal scaffold, the long-term efficacy of epithelial replacement was very limited. Further studies have focused on matrix replacement predominantly involving collagen frameworks with or without cellular additions. The fibroblast is central to the process of dermal regeneration and to the success of biologic matrix design. The sequence of cellular focal adhesion, integrin phosphorylated activation, intracellular and extracellular signaling, cytoskeletal activation, changes in cell morphology, and cytokine growth factor interaction are all important in influencing cell proliferation, cell spreading, neocollagenesis, and collagen translocation. A basic acellular matrix with chemical composition and correct physical structure (pore size and resistance) that takes cognizance of this sequence of matrix deposition and fibroblast functionality should be successful in promoting intrinsic healing and dermal replacement. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]