randomized controlled trials of olanzapine (Zyprexa) for bipolar disorder


(Updated 6/14/05; note that placebo-controlled trials have been placed in the right column.)

Rendell JM, Gijsman HJ, Keck P, Goodwin GM, Geddes JR.
Olanzapine alone or in combination for acute mania.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(3):CD004040.
"BACKGROUND: Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is used in the treatment of mania both as monotherapy and combined with other medicines. OBJECTIVES: To review the efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine in the treatment of mania SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing olanzapine with placebo or other drug in acute manic or mixed episodes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently extracted data from trial reports MAIN RESULTS: Six trials (1422 participants) were included in the review. There was a high rate of failure to complete treatment on all treatments which may have biased the estimates of relative efficacy. Olanzapine was superior to placebo at reducing manic symptoms as monotherapy (Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) - weighted mean difference (WMD): -5.94, 95% CI -9.09 to -2.80) and in combination with lithium/valproate (YMRS) (WMD -4.01, 95% confidence interval -6.06 to -1.96). Olanzapine monotherapy was superior at reducing psychotic symptoms (PANSS positive symptoms subscale WMD: -3.54, 95% CI -5.28 to -1.80). Olanzapine was superior to divalproex at reducing manic symptoms (standardised mean difference (SMD): -0.29, 95% CI -0.50 to -0.08). Olanzapine did not lead to a statistically higher rate of clinical response than haloperidol (RR: 1.03, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.38). Fewer patients discontinued treatment on olanzapine than placebo (RR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.80). Olanzapine caused greater weight gain than placebo (WMD 1.91Kg, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.53) and somnolence (RR: 2.13 95% CI 1.62 to 2.79) but not more depressive symptoms (RR: 0.95, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.40) or movement disorder (WMD: -0.33, 95% CI -0.74 to 0.09). Olanzapine caused more prolactin elevation than placebo (RR: 4.35 95%CI 1.77 to 10.70). Olanzapine caused greater weight gain (WMD: 1.54, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.05); somnolence (RR: 1.80 95% CI 1.32 to 2.46) and movement disorders (SAS - WMD: 0.72 95% CI 0.11 to 1.33) than divalproex but less nausea ( RR: 0.36 95% CI 0.20 to 0.65). Olanzapine caused more weight gain than haloperidol (RR: 3.59, 95% CI 1.49 to 8.64) but less movement disorder (EPS RR: 0.10, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.24). REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: Olanzapine is an effective treatment for mania and may be more efficacious than divalproex, though leads to more weight gain. Clinicians should consider both the relative efficacy and the different incidence of specific adverse effects of available drugs." [Abstract]

Zajecka JM, Weisler R, Sachs G, Swann AC, Wozniak P, Sommerville KW.
Rush-Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical Center, Chicago, Ill 60612-3824, USA. John_Zajecka@rush.edu
A comparison of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of divalproex sodium and olanzapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2002 Dec;63(12):1148-55.
"BACKGROUND: This study compared the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of divalproex and olanzapine in the treatment of acute mania associated with bipolar disorder. METHOD: This randomized, 12-week, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter study included DSM-IV-defined bipolar disorder type I patients hospitalized for acute mania and randomly assigned to treatment with divalproex or olanzapine. After an inpatient period of up to 21 days, subjects were followed as outpatients. Dose adjustment was permitted during the inpatient period. Efficacy was assessed using change from baseline in Mania Rating Scale (MRS) score to day 21; other efficacy measures included the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Clinical Global Impressions-Part I, Severity of Illness scale. The primary safety endpoint was change from baseline in weight. Other safety and tolerability endpoints included spontaneous adverse event reporting and changes from baseline in laboratory measures and vital signs. RESULTS: 120 subjects (N = 63 divalproex, N = 57 olanzapine) were randomly assigned to treatment. No significant differences between groups were found for any efficacy variable for change from baseline to day 21. Mean MRS score changes from baseline to day 21 were -14.8 for divalproex and -17.2 for olanzapine (p =.210). A significantly (p <.05) greater proportion of olanzapine-treated subjects experienced somnolence, weight gain, edema, rhinitis, and speech disorder (slurred speech); no adverse events were significantly greater in the divalproex group. A number of laboratory measures also demonstrated significant treatment differences, but the clinical significance of many of these is uncertain. Mean body weight changes were significantly greater in the olanzapine group (+ 8.8 lb [+ 4.0 kg]) than the divalproex group (+ 5.5 lb [+ 2.5 kg], p <.050). One death occurred during the study (olanzapine group, diabetic ketoacidosis). CONCLUSION: No significant difference in efficacy was found between treatment groups. Divalproex was associated with a more favorable adverse event profile and significantly less weight gain than olanzapine." [Abstract]

Tohen M, Ketter TA, Zarate CA, Suppes T, Frye M, Altshuler L, Zajecka J, Schuh LM, Risser RC, Brown E, Baker RW.
Lilly Research Laboratories, IN 46285, USA. m.tohen@lilly.com
Olanzapine versus divalproex sodium for the treatment of acute mania and maintenance of remission: a 47-week study.
Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Jul;160(7):1263-71.
"OBJECTIVE: Few double-blind trials have compared longer-term efficacy and safety of medications for bipolar disorder. The authors report a 47-week comparison of olanzapine and divalproex. METHOD: This 47-week, randomized, double-blind study compared flexibly dosed olanzapine (5-20 mg/day) to divalproex (500-2500 mg/day) for manic or mixed episodes of bipolar disorder (N=251). The only other psychoactive medication allowed was lorazepam for agitation. The primary efficacy instrument was the Young Mania Rating Scale; a priori protocol-defined threshold scores were > or =20 for inclusion, < or =12 for remission, and > or = 15 for relapse. Analytical techniques included mixed model repeated-measures analysis of variance for change from baseline, Fisher's exact test (two-tailed) for categorical comparisons, and Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to events of interest. RESULTS: Over 47 weeks, mean improvement in Young Mania Rating Scale score was significantly greater for the olanzapine group. Median time to symptomatic mania remission was significantly shorter for olanzapine, 14 days, than for divalproex, 62 days. There were no significant differences between treatments in the rates of symptomatic mania remission over the 47 weeks (56.8% and 45.5%, respectively) and subsequent relapse into mania or depression (42.3% and 56.5%). Treatment-emergent adverse events occurring significantly more frequently during olanzapine treatment were somnolence, dry mouth, increased appetite, weight gain, akathisia, and high alanine aminotransferase levels; those for divalproex were nausea and nervousness. CONCLUSIONS: In this 47-week study of acute bipolar mania, symptomatic remission occurred sooner and overall mania improvement was greater for olanzapine than for divalproex, but rates of bipolar relapse did not differ." [Abstract]

Revicki DA, Paramore LC, Sommerville KW, Swann AC, Zajecka JM; Depakote Comparator Study Group.
Center for Outcomes Research, MEDTAP International, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA. revicki@medtap.com
Divalproex sodium versus olanzapine in the treatment of acute mania in bipolar disorder: health-related quality of life and medical cost outcomes.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2003 Mar;64(3):288-94.
"BACKGROUND: Divalproex sodium is a mood stabilizer used in the United States for the treatment of acute mania associated with bipolar disorder. Recently, olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, was approved for the treatment of acute mania. This study compares the clinical, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and economic outcomes of divalproex and olanzapine in the treatment of acute mania associated with bipolar disorder. METHOD: This 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized clinical trial included 120 subjects with DSM-IV bipolar disorder type I hospitalized for an acute manic episode recruited from 21 U.S. clinical centers. Subjects were randomly assigned to treatment with either divalproex or olanzapine and were followed in hospital for up to 21 days. If after 21 days clinical improvements (based on the Mania Rating Scale [MRS]) were not observed, subjects were discontinued. Subjects showing clinical improvement were treated for up to 12 weeks. HRQL was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q) after hospital discharge (baseline) and at 6 and 12 weeks. Medical resource use and costs were collected over the 12-week study. RESULTS: A total of 120 subjects (N = 63 divalproex, N = 57 olanzapine) were randomized, and 78 (65%) were followed beyond 21 days. No statistically significant differences between the treatment groups for baseline-to-endpoint MRS or Q-LES-Q scores were observed. Total 12-week outpatient medical costs were significantly lower for the divalproex-treated group (541 US dollars) compared with the olanzapine-treated group (1080 US dollars) (p =.004). There was no significant difference in total medical costs between the 2 groups (divalproex = 13,703 US dollars; olanzapine = 15,180 US dollars; p =.88). CONCLUSION: Divalproex is associated with lower 12-week outpatient costs compared with olanzapine. Divalproex and olanzapine have similar short-term effects on clinical or HRQL outcomes in bipolar disorder subjects." [Abstract]

Tohen M, Baker RW, Altshuler LL, Zarate CA, Suppes T, Ketter TA, Milton DR, Risser R, Gilmore JA, Breier A, Tollefson GA.
Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA. m.tohen@lilly.com
Olanzapine versus divalproex in the treatment of acute mania.
Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Jun;159(6):1011-7.
"OBJECTIVE: The effects of olanzapine and divalproex for the treatment of mania were compared in a large randomized clinical trial. METHOD: A 3-week, randomized, double-blind trial compared flexibly dosed olanzapine (5-20 mg/day) to divalproex (500-2500 mg/day in divided doses) for the treatment of patients hospitalized for acute bipolar manic or mixed episodes. The Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used to quantify manic and depressive symptoms, respectively. Safety was assessed with several measures. RESULTS: The protocol defined baseline-to-endpoint improvement in the mean total score on the Young Mania Rating Scale as the primary outcome variable. The mean Young Mania Rating Scale score decreased by 13.4 for patients treated with olanzapine (N=125) and 10.4 for those treated with divalproex (N=123). A priori categorizations defined response and remission rates: 54.4% of olanzapine-treated patients responded (> or = 50% reduction in Young Mania Rating Scale score), compared to 42.3% of divalproex-treated patients; 47.2% of olanzapine-treated patients had remission of mania symptoms (endpoint Young Mania Rating Scale < or = 12), compared to 34.1% of divalproex-treated patients. The decrease in Hamilton depression scale score was similar in the two treatment groups. Completion rates for the 3-week study were similar in both groups. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (incidence >10%) occurring more frequently during treatment with olanzapine were dry mouth, increased appetite, and somnolence. For divalproex, nausea was more frequently observed. The average weight gain with olanzapine treatment was 2.5 kg, compared to 0.9 kg with divalproex treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The olanzapine treatment group had significantly greater mean improvement of mania ratings and a significantly greater proportion of patients achieving protocol-defined remission, compared with the divalproex treatment group. Significantly more weight gain and cases of dry mouth, increased appetite, and somnolence were reported with olanzapine, while more cases of nausea were reported with divalproex." [Abstract]

Hirschfeld RM, Baker JD, Wozniak P, Tracy K, Sommerville KW.
University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, USA. rohirsch@utmb.edu
The safety and early efficacy of oral-loaded divalproex versus standard-titration divalproex, lithium, olanzapine, and placebo in the treatment of acute mania associated with bipolar disorder.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2003 Jul;64(7):841-6.
"BACKGROUND: Previous studies have examined the safety and tolerability of oral-loaded divalproex sodium in the treatment of acute mania, but not the early efficacy of this dosing strategy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early efficacy of oral-loaded divalproex. METHOD: In this pooled analysis, 348 subjects from 3 randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active- or placebo-controlled studies were used to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of oral-loaded divalproex with standard-titration divalproex, lithium, olanzapine, or placebo. Subjects were inpatients diagnosed with acute mania associated with bipolar I disorder (DSM-III-R or -IV and SADS-Change Version). Patients were administered oral-loaded divalproex (20 or 30 mg/kg/day on days 1 and 2 followed by 20 mg/kg/day, and increased at physician's discretion), standard-titration divalproex initiated at 250 mg t.i.d. and titrated to 40-150 microg/mL, lithium (300 mg t.i.d. initial dose) titrated to 0.4 to 1.5 mEq/L, olanzapine (10 mg q.d. initial dose) up to 20 mg/day, or placebo. RESULTS: The results demonstrate an early efficacy advantage for oral-loaded divalproex compared to standard-titration divalproex at days 5, 7/8, and 10. Efficacy was improved over lithium on day 7/8. There were no efficacy differences between divalproex loading and olanzapine. Divalproex loading showed greater efficacy than placebo at all time points. Divalproex loading was as well tolerated or better tolerated than the other active treatments as measured by adverse events and changes in laboratory parameters. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the oral loading of divalproex leads to a more rapid antimanic effect when compared with standard-titration divalproex, lithium, or placebo and is better tolerated than olanzapine and as well tolerated as lithium or standard-titration divalproex." [Abstract]

Berk M, Ichim L, Brook S.
Department of Psychiatry, University of the Witwatersrand Medical School, Parktown, South Africa. 039berk@chiron.wits.ac.za
Olanzapine compared to lithium in mania: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999 Nov;14(6):339-43.
"Neuroleptics are of established efficacy in mania. Controlled data on the use of olanzapine in mania is however, absent. In this study, 30 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for mania were randomly allocated to receive either olanzapine or lithium in a 4 week double-blind randomized controlled design. There were no significant outcome differences between the two groups on any of the primary outcome measures, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (lithium 28.2; olanzapine 28.0; P = 0.44); Clinical Global Impression (CGI) improvement scale (lithium 2.75, olanzapine 2.36; P = 0.163) or the Mania Scale (lithium 13.2, olanzapine 10.2; P = 0.315). Olanzapine was however, significantly superior to lithium on the CGI-severity scale at week 4 (lithium 2.83, olanzapine 2.29; P = 0.025). Olanzapine did not differ from lithium in terms of treatment emergent extrapyramidal side-effects as measured by the Simpson-Angus Scale. Olanzapine appears to be at least as effective as lithium in the treatment of mania." [Abstract]

Tohen M, Goldberg JF, Gonzalez-Pinto Arrillaga AM, Azorin JM, Vieta E, Hardy-Bayle MC, Lawson WB, Emsley RA, Zhang F, Baker RW, Risser RC, Namjoshi MA, Evans AR, Breier A.
Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, Ind 46225, USA. m.tohen@lilly.com
A 12-week, double-blind comparison of olanzapine vs haloperidol in the treatment of acute mania.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Dec;60(12):1218-26.
"BACKGROUND: This randomized controlled trial compares the efficacy and safety of olanzapine vs haloperidol, as well as the quality of life of patients taking these drugs, in patients with bipolar mania. METHODS: The design consisted of 2 successive, 6-week, double-blind periods and compared flexible dosing of olanzapine (5-20 mg/d, n = 234) with haloperidol (3-15 mg/d, n = 219). RESULTS: Rates of remission (Young-Mania Rating Scale score of < or =12 and 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of < or =8 at week 6) were similar for olanzapine- and haloperidol-treated patients (52.1% vs 46.1%, respectively; P =.15). For the subgroup of patients whose index episode did not include psychotic features, rates of remission were significantly greater for the olanzapine group compared with the haloperidol group (56.7% vs 41.6%, P =.04). Relapse into an affective episode (mania and/or depression) occurred in 13.1% and 14.8% of olanzapine- and haloperidol-treated patients, respectively (P =.56). Switch to depression occurred significantly more rapidly with haloperidol than with olanzapine when using survival analysis techniques (P =.04), and significantly more haloperidol-treated patients experienced worsening of extrapyramidal symptoms, as indicated by several measures. Weight gain was significantly greater in the olanzapine group compared with the haloperidol group (2.82 vs 0.02 kg, P<.001). The olanzapine group had significant improvement in quality of life on several dimensions compared with the haloperidol group. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that olanzapine does not differ from haloperidol in achieving overall remission of bipolar mania. However, haloperidol carries a higher rate of extrapyramidal symptoms, whereas olanzapine is associated with weight gain." [Abstract]

Shi L, Namjoshi MA, Zhang F, Gandhi G, Edgell ET, Tohen M, Breier A, Haro JM.
Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA. shi_lizheng@lilly.com
Olanzapine versus haloperidol in the treatment of acute mania: clinical outcomes, health-related quality of life and work status.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002 Sep;17(5):227-37.
"We aimed to compare clinical outcomes, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and work status associated with olanzapine and haloperidol treatment in patients with bipolar disorder. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial, comparing flexible dosing of olanzapine (5-20 mg/day, n = 234) to haloperidol (3-15 mg/day, n = 219), consisted of a 6-week acute phase, followed by a 6-week continuation phase. Symptomatic remission rates were similar for olanzapine- and haloperidol-treated patients at weeks 6 and 12. At week 6, significant changes in five dimensions of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) [general health (P = 0.010), physical functioning (P < 0.001), role limitations due to physical problems (P < 0.001), social functioning (P < 0.05) and vitality (P < 0.01)] and the SF-36 physical components summary score were found in favour of olanzapine compared to haloperidol. At week 12, olanzapine treatment maintained the significantly favourable HRQOL changes. At the end of week 12, patients on olanzapine showed significantly greater improvement than haloperidol in work activities impairment and household activities impairment scores on the Streamlined Longitudinal Interview Clinical Evaluation from the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (SLICE/LIFE) activities impairment scores. Subgroup analyses revealed that olanzapine treatment significantly increased a proportion of employed patients and their weekly paid working hours. In conclusion, compared to haloperidol, olanzapine treatment was comparably effective in the remission of bipolar mania and significantly improved HRQOL and work status in patients with bipolar I disorder." [Abstract]

Baldessarini RJ, Hennen J, Wilson M, Calabrese J, Chengappa R, Keck PE Jr, McElroy SL, Sachs G, Vieta E, Welge JA, Yatham LN, Zarate CA Jr, Baker RW, Tohen M.
International Consortium for Bipolar Disorder Research, Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. rjb@mclean.org
Olanzapine versus placebo in acute mania: treatment responses in subgroups.
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003 Aug;23(4):370-6.
"Two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of olanzapine in acute mania showed significant overall antimanic efficacy, based on reductions in mania ratings. Their subject-level data were pooled to increase statistical power to test for differences in treatment responses among 10 subgroup pairs of interest using generalized estimating equations methods. Similar drug/placebo superiority and responsiveness to olanzapine was found in men versus women, psychotic versus nonpsychotic subjects, and those presenting in mania versus mixed states, and responses were independent of onset age, current age, or prior illness based on episodes, hospitalizations, recent rapid cycling, lifetime substance use, or previous antipsychotic treatment. Olanzapine and placebo responses paralleled closely (r(s) = 0.73). Patients were relatively more responsive to olanzapine who were younger at illness onset, lacked prior substance abuse, and had not previously received antipsychotic treatment (efficacy ratios 1.5-1.7, all P < 0.01). These well-powered comparisons of subgroups of interest indicate broad efficacy of olanzapine in the treatment of acute mania." [Abstract]

Chengappa KN, Baker RW, Shao L, Yatham LN, Tohen M, Gershon S, Kupfer DJ.
Western Psychiatric Institute & Clinic, Mayview State Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA 15213-2593, USA. chengappakn@msx.upmc.edu
Rates of response, euthymia and remission in two placebo-controlled olanzapine trials for bipolar mania.
Bipolar Disord. 2003 Feb;5(1):1-5.
"OBJECTIVE: Clinically meaningful recovery from acute mania may not be captured by conventionally reported response categorizations. We defined new and stringent criteria for remission in bipolar mania. Using a cohort of patients with acute mania randomized to treatment with either olanzapine or placebo, we contrasted remission rates to findings using previously reported but more lenient categorical outcome measures of response and euthymia. METHODS: We pooled and reanalyzed results through 3 weeks from two published randomized double-blind trials of olanzapine versus placebo for treating acute bipolar mania (1, 2). Response was previously defined as > or = 50% decrease from baseline to endpoint total Young Mania Rating Scale (3) (Y-MRS) scores, and euthymia as an endpoint total Y-MRS score of < or = 12. In this report, remission required an endpoint total Y-MRS score of < or = 7, and an endpoint total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, (HAM-D21) (4) score of < or = 7 and an endpoint Clinical Global Impression Scale - Bipolar version, CGI-BP (5), overall severity score of < or = 2. RESULTS: Olanzapine treated subjects achieved statistically significantly greater rates of clinical response, euthymia and remission than those assigned to placebo, 55% versus 29.5%, 50% versus 27%, and 18% versus 7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Olanzapine monotherapy resulted in discernable clinical improvements in mania in over 50% of subjects and just under 20% of subjects achieved a near complete resolution of manic and accompanying depressive symptoms after 3 weeks of treatment. Full remission is an important but potentially elusive goal during short-term management of acute mania." [Abstract]

Namjoshi MA, Rajamannar G, Jacobs T, Sanger TM, Risser R, Tohen MF, Breier A, Keck PE Jr.
Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, IN, USA. namjoshi_madhev@lilly.com
Economic, clinical, and quality-of-life outcomes associated with olanzapine treatment in mania. Results from a randomized controlled trial.
J Affect Disord. 2002 May;69(1-3):109-18.
"INTRODUCTION: The objectives of this study were to determine the economic, clinical, and quality-of-life outcomes associated with olanzapine treatment in patients diagnosed with mania. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder with manic or mixed episodes were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. The study design comprised a 3-week acute phase followed by a 49-week open label extension. In the open label extension, the use of lithium and fluoxetine was permitted for patients who experienced breakthrough symptoms. Clinical, economic, and quality-of-life outcomes of treatment were assessed. RESULTS: During the acute phase, olanzapine patients experienced a statistically significant greater mean improvement from baseline on the Y-MRS total score compared to the placebo patients. In the open label extension, patients experienced a statistically significant mean change of 11.8 units on the Y-MRS from the end of the acute phase. When compared to costs incurred in the previous 12 months of therapy, patients experienced savings of almost $900 per month during the 49 weeks of olanzapine therapy. These cost savings were largely driven by reductions in in-patient costs during the open label extension. Health-related quality of life improvements measured by the SF-36 were seen on several dimensions both in the 3-week acute phase as well as in the 49-week open label extension. CONCLUSION: From a clinical, economic, and quality-of-life outcomes standpoint, olanzapine had a significant impact in the treatment of mania, and could be considered a cost-effective treatment option for use in this population if these findings are extrapolated to non-clinical trial populations." [Abstract]

Tohen M, Chengappa KN, Suppes T, Zarate CA Jr, Calabrese JR, Bowden CL, Sachs GS, Kupfer DJ, Baker RW, Risser RC, Keeter EL, Feldman PD, Tollefson GD, Breier A.
Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly & Co, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.
Efficacy of olanzapine in combination with valproate or lithium in the treatment of mania in patients partially nonresponsive to valproate or lithium monotherapy.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002 Jan;59(1):62-9.
"BACKGROUND: A 6-week double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of combined therapy with olanzapine and either valproate or lithium compared with valproate or lithium alone in treating acute manic or mixed bipolar episodes. METHODS: The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of olanzapine (5-20 mg/d) vs placebo when added to ongoing mood-stabilizer therapy as measured by reductions in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores. Patients with bipolar disorder (n = 344), manic or mixed episode, who were inadequately responsive to more than 2 weeks of lithium or valproate therapy, were randomized to receive cotherapy (olanzapine + mood-stabilizer) or monotherapy (placebo + mood-stabilizer). RESULTS: Olanzapine cotherapy improved patients' YMRS total scores significantly more than monotherapy (-13.11 vs -9.10; P = .003). Clinical response rates (> or = 50% improvement on YMRS) were significantly higher with cotherapy (67.7% vs 44.7%; P< .001). Olanzapine cotherapy improved 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-21) total scores significantly more than monotherapy (4.98 vs 0.89 points; P< .001). In patients with mixed-episodes with moderate to severe depressive symptoms (DSM-IV mixed episode; HAMD-21 score of > or = 20 at baseline), olanzapine cotherapy improved HAMD-21 scores by 10.31 points compared with 1.57 for monotherapy (P< .001). Extrapyramidal symptoms (Simpson-Angus Scale, Barnes Akathisia Scale, Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale) were not significantly changed from baseline to end point in either treatment group. Treatment-emergent symptoms that were significantly higher for the olanzapine cotherapy group included somnolence, dry mouth, weight gain, increased appetite, tremor, and slurred speech. CONCLUSION: Compared with the use of valproate or lithium alone, the addition of olanzapine provided superior efficacy in the treatment of manic and mixed bipolar episodes." [Abstract]

Baker RW, Brown E, Akiskal HS, Calabrese JR, Ketter TA, Schuh LM, Trzepacz PT, Watkin JG, Tohen M
Efficacy of olanzapine combined with valproate or lithium in the treatment of dysphoric mania.
Br J Psychiatry. 2004 Dec;185472-8.
BACKGROUND: Few controlled studies examine the treatment of depressive features in mania. AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of olanzapine, in combination with lithium or valproate, for treating depressive symptoms associated with mania. METHOD: Secondary analysis of a 6-week, double-blind, randomised study of olanzapine (5-20 mg/day) or placebo combined with ongoing valproate or lithium open treatment for 344 patients in mixed or manic episodes. This analysis focused on a dysphoric subgroup with baseline Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) total scores of 20 or over contrasted with non-dysphoric patients. RESULTS: In the dysphoric subgroup (n=85) mean HRSD total score improvement was significantly greater in olanzapine co-therapy patients than in those receiving placebo plus lithium or valproate (P<0.001). Substantial contributors to this superiority included the HRSD Maier sub-scale (P=0.013) and the suicide item (P=0.001). Total Young Mania Rating Scale improvement was also superior with olanzapine co-therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute dysphoric mania, addition of olanzapine to ongoing lithium or valproate monotherapy significantly improved depressive symptom, mania and suicidality ratings. [Abstract]

Tohen M, Chengappa KN, Suppes T, Baker RW, Zarate CA, Bowden CL, Sachs GS, Kupfer DJ, Ghaemi SN, Feldman PD, Risser RC, Evans AR, Calabrese JR.
Relapse prevention in bipolar I disorder: 18-month comparison of olanzapine plus mood stabiliser v. mood stabiliser alone.
Br J Psychiatry. 2004 Apr;184:337-45.
BACKGROUND: Few controlled studies have examined the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs for prevention of relapse in patients with bipolar I disorder. Aims To evaluate whether olanzapine plus either lithium or valproate reduces the rate of relapse, compared with lithium or valproate alone. METHOD: Patients achieving syndromic remission after 6 weeks'treatment with olanzapine plus either lithium (0.6-1.2 mmol/l) or valproate (50-125 microg/ml) received lithium or valproate plus either olanzapine 5-20 mg/day (combination therapy) or placebo (monotherapy), and were followed in a double-masked trial for 18 months. RESULTS: The treatment difference in time to relapse into either mania or depression was not significant for syndromic relapse (median time to relapse: combination therapy 94 days, monotherapy 40.5 days; P=0.742), but was significant for symptomatic relapse (combination therapy 163 days, monotherapy 42 days; P=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Patients taking olanzapine added to lithium or valproate experienced sustained symptomatic remission, but not syndromic remission, for longer than those receiving lithium or valproate monotherapy. [Abstract]

Baker RW, Goldberg JF, Tohen M, Milton DR, Stauffer VL, Schuh LM.
Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA. baker_robert_w@lilly.com
The impact of response to previous mood stabilizer therapy on response to olanzapine versus placebo for acute mania.
Bipolar Disord. 2002 Feb;4(1):43-9.
"OBJECTIVES: A clinically important question for any new treatment for bipolar disorder is whether its efficacy extends to patients who have both responded and failed to respond to other mood stabilizers. In this secondary analysis of a placebo-controlled trial demonstrating olanzapine's efficacy for acute mania, we explore whether its usefulness extends to those patients with a history of poor response to other mood stabilizers. METHODS: This 4-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial studied olanzapine monotherapy 5-20 mg/day for hospitalized patients in acute manic or mixed bipolar episodes. The primary outcome variable was beginning to endpoint change in the Young-Mania Rating Scale (Y-MRS) total score. We investigated whether prospectively identified history of recent failure to respond to other mood stabilizers predicted response to olanzapine. RESULTS: As previously reported, olanzapine-treated patients experienced significantly greater improvement in Y-MRS total score and higher remission rates relative to placebo-treated patients. The current analysis compared these outcome parameters in patients with known poor prior response to lithium and/or valproate with all other patients and found no significant group by treatment interactions, i.e., treatment effects were not significantly diminished in non-responders to older mood stabilizing agents. CONCLUSIONS: Olanzapine has been shown to be superior to placebo for the treatment of mania. This secondary analysis suggests that olanzapine monotherapy is similarly effective for patients whether or not they previously have failed to respond to another mood stabilizer for mania. A study limitation is that response to lithium or valproate was determined retrospectively." [Abstract]

Sanger TM, Tohen M, Vieta E, Dunner DL, Bowden CL, Calabrese JR, Feldman PD, Jacobs TG, Breier A.
Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.
Olanzapine in the acute treatment of bipolar I disorder with a history of rapid cycling.
J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan;73(1-2):155-61.
"BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients with bipolar disorder are characterized by a rapidly cycling course and are particularly resistant to conventional treatment. METHODS: This secondary analysis, defined a priori, was conducted on a larger data set from patients with bipolar I disorder to determine the efficacy of a 3-week treatment with the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine (5-20 mg/day, n=19) versus placebo (n=26) in patients with >or=4 episodes in the preceding year. RESULTS: Significantly fewer placebo patients completed treatment (34.6 vs. 73.7%, P=0.016), and more than half discontinued due to lack of efficacy (53.8 vs. 21.1%, P=0.035). Olanzapine reduced Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total scores significantly more than placebo (-13.9 vs. -4.1, P=0.011). Clinical responses, defined as >or=50% improvement in YMRS, were achieved in 58% of olanzapine patients, compared with 28% of placebo patients (P=0.066). Extrapyramidal symptoms were not significantly changed in either group. Somnolence was the most common adverse event in both groups (olanzapine: 52.6%, placebo: 23.1%; P=0.060). No event occurred significantly more frequently with olanzapine than with placebo. No patients discontinued due to an adverse event. LIMITATIONS: The duration of this study was limited to 3 weeks, precluding conclusions about long-term efficacy of olanzapine. Moreover, a sizeable placebo effect was obtained, possibly masking optimal therapeutic effect. Despite these limitations, treatment differences in efficacy were highly significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that olanzapine was effective in reducing symptoms of mania and well tolerated in patients with bipolar I disorder with a rapid-cycling course." [Abstract]

Vieta E, Calabrese JR, Hennen J, Colom F, Martínez-Arán A, Sánchez-Moreno J, Yatham LN, Tohen M, Baldessarini RJ
Comparison of rapid-cycling and non-rapid-cycling bipolar I manic patients during treatment with olanzapine: analysis of pooled data.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2004 Oct;65(10):1420-8.
INTRODUCTION: Rapid-cycling (RC) bipolar disorder patients experience high levels of morbidity, typically respond unsatisfactorily to available treatments, and, so, require additional studies of novel treatments. We report on the first controlled study comparing acute and continuous clinical outcomes in RC and non-RC manic patients treated with olanzapine. METHOD: We analyzed data pooled from 2 placebo-controlled, double-blind, 3- to 4-week trials of olanzapine in mania (N = 254), 1 with an open-label extension up to 1 year (N = 113) and controlled supplementation with lithium or fluoxetine as needed, to compare demographic, clinical, and outcome measures between RC and non-RC subgroups of 254 DSM-IV bipolar I manic subjects. RESULTS: RC (N = 90, 35%) versus non-RC subjects (N = 164, 65%) were younger at intake (p = .02), less often psychotic (p < .0001), and more likely to have familial bipolar disorder (p < .0001), abused substances (p = .01), more previous hospitalizations (p = .004), and many more illness episodes (p < .001). In initial blinded trial outcomes, relative responses (> or = 50% improvement of mania) to olanzapine/placebo were similar in RC and non-RC subjects, though early responses to olanzapine favored RC over non-RC subjects (p = .003), and long-term outcomes favored non-RC subjects (p = .05). Fewer RC subjects achieved strictly defined initial symptomatic remission (p = .014) within a year; RC subjects were more likely to experience recurrences (p = .002), especially of depressive illness (< .001), and had more rehospitalizations (p = .01) and suicide attempts (p = .03). CONCLUSIONS: RC bipolar I patients showed major initial differences and more rapid initial clinical changes, especially toward depression, with less favorable long-term outcomes than non-RC cases during treatment with olanzapine. Inclusion of RC bipolar disorder patients can complicate therapeutic trials, but these patients require further study for differential responsiveness to innovative treatments with methods of assessing clinical response that take their mood instability into account. [Abstract]

Tohen M, Jacobs TG, Grundy SL, McElroy SL, Banov MC, Janicak PG, Sanger T, Risser R, Zhang F, Toma V, Francis J, Tollefson GD, Breier A.
Lilly Research Laboratories, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN 46285. USA. m.tohen@lilly.com
Efficacy of olanzapine in acute bipolar mania: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The Olanzipine HGGW Study Group.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000 Sep;57(9):841-9.
"BACKGROUND: We compared the efficacy and safety of olanzapine vs placebo for the treatment of acute bipolar mania. METHODS: Four-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel study. A total of 115 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar disorder, manic or mixed, were randomized to olanzapine, 5 to 20 mg/d (n = 55), or placebo (n = 60). The primary efficacy measure was the Young-Mania Rating Scale (Y-MRS) total score. Response and euthymia were defined, a priori, as at least a 50% improvement from baseline to end point and as a score of no less than 12 at end point in the Y-MRS total score, respectively. Safety was assessed using adverse events, Extrapyramidal Symptom (EPS) rating scales, laboratory values, electrocardiograms, vital signs, and weight change. RESULTS: Olanzapine-treated patients demonstrated a statistically significant greater mean (+/- SD) improvement in Y-MRS total score than placebo-treated patients (-14.8 +/- 12.5 and -8.1 +/- 12.7, respectively; P<.001), which was evident at the first postbaseline observation 1 week after randomization and was maintained throughout the study (last observation carried forward). Olanzapine-treated patients demonstrated a higher rate of response (65% vs 43%, respectively; P =.02) and euthymia (61% vs 36%, respectively; P =. 01) than placebo-treated patients. There were no statistically significant differences in EPSs between groups. However, olanzapine-treated patients had a statistically significant greater mean (+/- SD) weight gain than placebo-treated patients (2.1 +/- 2.8 vs 0.45 +/- 2.3 kg, respectively) and also experienced more treatment-emergent somnolence (21 patients [38.2%] vs 5 [8.3% ], respectively). CONCLUSION: Olanzapine demonstrated greater efficacy than placebo in the treatment of acute bipolar mania and was generally well tolerated." [Abstract]

Tohen M, Sanger TM, McElroy SL, Tollefson GD, Chengappa KN, Daniel DG, Petty F, Centorrino F, Wang R, Grundy SL, Greaney MG, Jacobs TG, David SR, Toma V.
Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.
Olanzapine versus placebo in the treatment of acute mania. Olanzapine HGEH Study Group.
Am J Psychiatry. 1999 May;156(5):702-9.
"OBJECTIVE: The primary intent of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of olanzapine and placebo in the treatment of acute mania. METHOD: The design involved a random-assignment, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study of 3 weeks' duration. After a 2- to 4-day screening period, qualified patients were assigned to either olanzapine (N = 70) or placebo (N = 69). Patients began double-blind therapy with either olanzapine, 10 mg, or placebo given once per day. After the first day of treatment, the daily dose could be adjusted upward or downward, as clinically indicated, by one capsule (olanzapine, 5 mg/day) within the allowed range of one to four capsules. The primary efficacy measure in the protocol was defined as a change from baseline to endpoint in total score on the Young Mania Rating Scale. Clinical response was defined a priori as a decrease of 50% or more from baseline in Young Mania Rating Scale total score. RESULTS: The olanzapine group experienced significantly greater mean improvement in Young Mania Rating Scale total score than the placebo group. On the basis of the clinical response criteria, significantly more olanzapine-treated patients (48.6%) responded than those assigned to placebo (24.2%). Somnolence, dizziness, dry mouth, and weight gain occurred significantly more often with olanzapine. There were no statistically significant differences between the olanzapine-treated and placebo-treated patients with respect to measures of parkinsonism, akathisia, and dyskinesias. No discontinuations of treatment due to adverse events occurred in the olanzapine treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study suggest that compared with placebo, olanzapine has superior efficacy for the symptoms of acute mania." [Abstract]

Shi L, Namjoshi MA, Swindle R, Yu X, Risser R, Baker RW, Tohen M.
Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA.
Effects of olanzapine alone and olanzapine/fluoxetine combination on health-related quality of life in patients with bipolar depression: secondary analyses of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.
Clin Ther. 2004 Jan;26(1):125-34.
BACKGROUND: Improving patients' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) could be a treatment goal for bipolar depression. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of these secondary analyses of a previous report were to determine the benefits of olanzapine alone and olanzapine-fluoxetine combination (OFC) for improving HRQOL in patients with bipolar depression using both a generic and a depression-specific HRQOL instrument, and to examine the association between the 2 HRQOL instruments and the construct validity of the depression-specific HRQOL instrument. METHODS: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 83-site, international, randomized trial. Adults with bipolar I disorder, most recent episode depressed (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), were randomly assigned to receive olanzapine (6-20 mg/d), OFC (6/25, 12/25, or 12/50 mg/d), or placebo for 8 weeks. HRQOL improvement was calculated as last-observation-carried-forward changes in dimension and component summary scores on Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and total score on the Quality of Life in Depression Scale (QLDS). Results: Patients were assigned to receive olanzapine (n = 377), OFC (n = 86), or placebo (n = 370) for 8 weeks. Of 833 enrolled patients, 454 discontinued (olanzapine, 232/377 [61.5%]; OFC, 31/86 [36.0%]; and placebo, 191/370 [51.6%]). Compared with placebo, olanzapine-treated patients exhibited greater improvements on SF-36 mental component summary (MCS) score ( P=0.002) and 3 of 8 SF-36 dimension scores (mental health [P=0.015], role-emotional [P=0.046], and social functioning [P=0.006). OFC-treated patients exhibited greater improvements on MCS score ( P<0.001) vs both placebo and olanzapine), 5 SF-36 dimension scores (general health perception (P<0.001) vs placebo; (P<0.001) vs olanzapinel, mental health [ P=0.001] vs both placebo and olanzapine], role-emotional [ P<0.001] vs placebo; [P=0.007] vs olanzapine], social functioning [ P=0.001] vs placebo; [P=0.032] vs olanzapine], and vitality [P=0.002] vs placebo; [P=0.011] vs olanzapine]), and QLDS total score ( P<0.001] vs both placebo and olanzapine). Changes in SF-36 scores of mental health, social functioning, role-emotional, and vitality were highly correlated to changes in the QLDS total score (all p < -0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Based on these analyses, patients with bipolar depression receiving olanzapine or OFC for 8 weeks had greater improvement in HRQOL than those receiving placebo. OFC treatment was associated with greater improvement in HRQOL than olanzapine alone. The correlation results support the construct validity of the QLDS. [Abstract]

Baker RW, Milton DR, Stauffer VL, Gelenberg A, Tohen M.
Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Drop Code 4133, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA. baker@lilly.com
Placebo-controlled trials do not find association of olanzapine with exacerbation of bipolar mania.
J Affect Disord. 2003 Jan;73(1-2):147-53.
"BACKGROUND: Published case reports describe apparent induction or exacerbation of manic-like symptoms during treatment with the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. To date, such reports are from uncontrolled clinical experience and therefore cannot clarify whether the atypical antipsychotics caused such manic-like states or simply failed to prevent them. Presumably, bipolar patients would be at increased risk for this putative adverse event. Therefore, we evaluated the potential of olanzapine to exacerbate symptoms of mania compared to placebo during treatment of bipolar mania. METHODS: Two inpatient, double-blind, randomized trials investigating the efficacy of olanzapine 5-20 mg daily versus placebo for the treatment of acute mania were combined. Two hundred and fifty-four subjects participated (placebo n=129; olanzapine n=125) in the two studies. Severity of mania was quantified with the 11-item Young-Mania Rating Scale (Y-MRS). In a post-hoc analysis, after double-blind therapy up to 3 weeks, categorical comparison of olanzapine and placebo groups was made for any worsening and worsening by 10 or 20% from baseline Y-MRS scores (LOCF). RESULTS: The percentage of subjects with exacerbation at endpoint were: any worsening, placebo 37.7%, olanzapine 21.8% (P=0.005); >or=10% worsening, placebo 24.6%, olanzapine 14.5% (P=0.039); >or=20% worsening, placebo 15.6%, olanzapine 8.1% (P=0.064). CONCLUSION: Mania rating scores worsened for some patients during olanzapine therapy. However, this was significantly less common with olanzapine than with placebo. These controlled data suggest that clinical case reports of occurrence of 'mania' during treatment with olanzapine, and possibly those with other atypical antipsychotics, reflect exacerbation in the natural history of bipolar illness, rather than an adverse pharmacological effect. LIMITATIONS: Post-hoc analysis of pooled data from two different studies." [Abstract]

Meehan K, Zhang F, David S, Tohen M, Janicak P, Small J, Koch M, Rizk R, Walker D, Tran P, Breier A.
Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA.
A double-blind, randomized comparison of the efficacy and safety of intramuscular injections of olanzapine, lorazepam, or placebo in treating acutely agitated patients diagnosed with bipolar mania.
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2001 Aug;21(4):389-97.
"There are no rapid-acting intramuscular formulations of atypical antipsychotics available for quickly calming an agitated patient with bipolar disorder. In this study, 201 agitated patients with bipolar mania were randomly assigned to receive one to three injections of the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine (10 mg, first two injections; 5 mg, third injection), the benzodiazepine lorazepam (2 mg, first two injections; 1 mg, third injection), or placebo (placebo, first two injections; olanzapine, 10 mg, third injection) within a 24-hour period. Agitation was measured at baseline, every 30 minutes for the first 2 hours, and at 24 hours after the first injection using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component subscale and two additional agitation scales. At 2 hours after the first injection, patients treated with olanzapine showed a significantly greater reduction in scores on all agitation scales compared with patients treated with either placebo or lorazepam. At 24 hours after the first injection, olanzapine remained statistically superior to placebo in reducing agitation in patients with acute mania, whereas patients treated with lorazepam were not significantly different from those treated with placebo or olanzapine. Furthermore, no significant differences among the three treatment groups were observed in safety measures, including treatment-emergent extrapyramidal symptoms, the incidence of acute dystonia, or QTc interval changes. These findings suggest that intramuscular olanzapine is a safe and effective treatment for reducing acute agitation in patients with bipolar mania." [Abstract]

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Recent Olanzapine RCT Results

1) Camm AJ, Karayal ON, Meltzer H, Kolluri S, O'Gorman C, Miceli J, Tensfeldt T, Kane JM
Ziprasidone and the corrected QT interval: a comprehensive summary of clinical data.
CNS Drugs. 2012 Apr 1;26(4):351-65.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

2) McElroy SL, Winstanley E, Mori N, Martens B, McCoy J, Moeller D, Guerdjikova AI, Keck PE
A randomized, placebo-controlled study of zonisamide to prevent olanzapine-associated weight gain.
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012 Apr;32(2):165-72.
Weight gain is commonly observed with olanzapine treatment. Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug associated with weight loss. This study examined the effectiveness of zonisamide in preventing weight gain in 42 patients beginning olanzapine for bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Each patient had a body mass index of 22 mg/kg or greater and was randomized to taking olanzapine with either zonisamide (n = 20) or placebo (n = 22) for 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure was change in body weight in kilograms from baseline. In the primary analysis using longitudinal regression, patients who received zonisamide had a significantly slower rate of weight gain and increase in body mass index than those who received placebo. The patients treated with zonisamide gained a mean (SD) of 0.9 (3.3) kg, whereas those treated with placebo gained a mean (SD) of 5.0 (5.5) kg; P = 0.01. None of the patients in the zonisamide group, compared with 7 patients (33%) in the placebo group, gained 7% of body weight or greater from baseline (Fisher exact test, P = 0.009). The zonisamide group, however, reported significantly more cognitive impairment as an adverse event than the placebo group (25% vs 0, respectively; P = 0.02). Zonisamide was effective for mitigating weight gain in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia initiating treatment with olanzapine but was associated with cognitive impairment as an adverse event. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

3) Gentile S
Clinical usefulness of second-generation antipsychotics in treating children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar or schizophrenic disorders.
Paediatr Drugs. 2011 Oct 1;13(5):291-302.
The onset of severe, chronic or recurrent psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders, is a dramatic clinical event often detectable during adolescence and even in childhood. At any age, pharmacotherapy, along with enhancement of social skills and family support, is the mainstay for the management of such disorders. The aim of this review is to critically analyze findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have investigated the clinical utility of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) for the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Eighteen studies were considered, all of which were unfortunately impaired by methodologic limitations, such as the paucity of long-term data and lack of a three-arm comparison (SGA vs SGA vs placebo). Nevertheless, the results of this review allow us to suggest the effectiveness of three SGAs (aripiprazole, olanzapine, and risperidone) in the short-term treatment of both early-onset schizophrenia and bipolar mania, although such agents show different safety profiles. The use of clozapine should be strictly limited to patients with non-affective, psychotic symptoms who do not respond to any of these three SGAs. In contrast, the use of quetiapine and ziprasidone in young patients with either affective or non-affective psychosis is not yet supported by evidence-based information. Given our findings, further studies are urgently required to identify the best treatment option(s) for pediatric bipolar disorder (especially the depressive phase) and the long-term management of early-onset schizophrenia. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

4) Cipriani A, Barbui C, Salanti G, Rendell J, Brown R, Stockton S, Purgato M, Spineli LM, Goodwin GM, Geddes JR
Comparative efficacy and acceptability of antimanic drugs in acute mania: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis.
Lancet. 2011 Oct 8;378(9799):1306-15.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

5) Meltzer HY, Bonaccorso S, Bobo WV, Chen Y, Jayathilake K
A 12-month randomized, open-label study of the metabolic effects of olanzapine and risperidone in psychotic patients: influence of valproic acid augmentation.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Dec;72(12):1602-10.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

6) Bobo WV, Epstein RA, Shelton RC
Effects of orally disintegrating vs regular olanzapine tablets on body weight, eating behavior, glycemic and lipid indices, and gastrointestinal hormones: a randomized, open comparison in outpatients with bipolar depression.
Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Aug;23(3):193-201.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

7) Szegedi A, Zhao J, van Willigenburg A, Nations KR, Mackle M, Panagides J
Effects of asenapine on depressive symptoms in patients with bipolar I disorder experiencing acute manic or mixed episodes: a post hoc analysis of two 3-week clinical trials.
BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:101.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

8) Baldaçara L, Sanches M, Cordeiro DC, Jackoswski AP
Rapid tranquilization for agitated patients in emergency psychiatric rooms: a randomized trial of olanzapine, ziprasidone, haloperidol plus promethazine, haloperidol plus midazolam and haloperidol alone.
Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2011 Mar;33(1):30-9.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

9) Kemp DE, Johnson E, Wang WV, Tohen M, Calabrese JR
Clinical utility of early improvement to predict response or remission in acute mania: focus on olanzapine and risperidone.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Sep;72(9):1236-41.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

10) Berk M, Brnabic A, Dodd S, Kelin K, Tohen M, Malhi GS, Berk L, Conus P, McGorry PD
Does stage of illness impact treatment response in bipolar disorder? Empirical treatment data and their implication for the staging model and early intervention.
Bipolar Disord. 2011 Feb;13(1):87-98.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

11) Praharaj SK, Jana AK, Goyal N, Sinha VK
Metformin for olanzapine-induced weight gain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Mar;71(3):377-82.
Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is useful in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder, but its use is associated with troublesome weight gain and metabolic syndrome. A variety of pharmacological agents has been studied in the efforts to reverse weight gain induced by olanzapine, but current evidence is insufficient to support any particular pharmacological approach. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of metformin for the treatment of olanzapine-induced weight gain. Systematic review of the literature revealed 12 studies that had assessed metformin for antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Of these, four studies (n= 105) met the review inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Meta-analysis was performed to see the effect size of the treatment on body weight, waist circumference and body-mass index (BMI). Weighted mean difference (WMD) for body weight was 5.02 (95% CI 3.93, 6.10) kg lower with metformin as compared with placebo at 12 weeks. For waist circumference, the test for heterogeneity was significant (P= 0.00002, I(2) = 85.1%). Therefore, a random effects model was used to calculate WMD, which was 1.42 (95% CI 0.29, 3.13) cm lower with metformin as compared with placebo at 12 weeks. For BMI, WMD was 1.82 (95% CI 1.44, 2.19) kg?m(-2) lower with metformin as compared with placebo at 12 weeks. Existing data suggest that short term modest weight loss is possible with metformin in patients with olanzapine-induced weight gain. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

12) Tarr GP, Glue P, Herbison P
Comparative efficacy and acceptability of mood stabilizer and second generation antipsychotic monotherapy for acute mania--a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Affect Disord. 2011 Nov;134(1-3):14-9.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

13) Kemp DE, Ganocy SJ, Brecher M, Carlson BX, Edwards S, Eudicone JM, Evoniuk G, Jansen W, Leon AC, Minkwitz M, Pikalov A, Stassen HH, Szegedi A, Tohen M, Van Willigenburg AP, Calabrese JR
Clinical value of early partial symptomatic improvement in the prediction of response and remission during short-term treatment trials in 3369 subjects with bipolar I or II depression.
J Affect Disord. 2011 Apr;130(1-2):171-9.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

14) Yildiz A, Vieta E, Leucht S, Baldessarini RJ
Efficacy of antimanic treatments: meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 Jan;36(2):375-89.
We conducted meta-analyses of findings from randomized, placebo-controlled, short-term trials for acute mania in manic or mixed states of DSM (III-IV) bipolar I disorder in 56 drug-placebo comparisons of 17 agents from 38 studies involving 10,800 patients. Of drugs tested, 13 (76%) were more effective than placebo: aripiprazole, asenapine, carbamazepine, cariprazine, haloperidol, lithium, olanzapine, paliperdone, quetiapine, risperidone, tamoxifen, valproate, and ziprasidone. Their pooled effect size for mania improvement (Hedges' g in 48 trials) was 0.42 (confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.48); pooled responder risk ratio (46 trials) was 1.52 (CI: 1.42-1.62); responder rate difference (RD) was 17% (drug: 48%, placebo: 31%), yielding an estimated number-needed-to-treat of 6 (all p<0.0001). In several direct comparisons, responses to various antipsychotics were somewhat greater or more rapid than lithium, valproate, or carbamazepine; lithium did not differ from valproate, nor did second generation antipsychotics differ from haloperidol. Meta-regression associated higher study site counts, as well as subject number with greater placebo (not drug) response; and higher baseline mania score with greater drug (not placebo) response. Most effective agents had moderate effect-sizes (Hedges' g=0.26-0.46); limited data indicated large effect sizes (Hedges' g=0.51-2.32) for: carbamazepine, cariprazine, haloperidol, risperidone, and tamoxifen. The findings support the efficacy of most clinically used antimanic treatments, but encourage more head-to-head studies and development of agents with even greater efficacy. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

15) Karagianis J, Landry J, Hoffmann VP, Grossman L, de Haan L, Maguire G, Milev R, Holt S
An exploratory analysis of factors associated with weight change in a 16-week trial of oral vs. orally disintegrating olanzapine: the PLATYPUS study.
Int J Clin Pract. 2010 Oct;64(11):1520-9.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

16) Vieta E, Locklear J, Günther O, Ekman M, Miltenburger C, Chatterton ML, Aström M, Paulsson B
Treatment options for bipolar depression: a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials.
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010 Oct;30(5):579-90.
This meta-analysis examined the effectiveness of treatments of bipolar depression. Trials were identified using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, and Cochrane databases (1993 to July 2008). The outcome measures included mean change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) or Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) total scores, and rates of response and remission. Overall, 19 publications were included. Medications included quetiapine, lamotrigine, paroxetine, lithium, olanzapine, aripiprazole, phenelzine, and divalproex. The most trials were identified for quetiapine (5) and lamotrigine (6). Not all medications were associated with symptomatic improvement (significant reduction in MADRS/HAM-D total scores vs placebo), with lamotrigine, paroxetine, aripiprazole, and lithium not being different from placebo. Highest reductions in MADRS scores versus placebo were reported for the olanzapine-fluoxetine combination (1 trial: -6.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], -9.59 to -3.61; P = 0.000) and quetiapine monotherapy (5 trials: for 300 mg/d, -4.8; 95% CI, -6.18 to -3.49; P = 0.000; for 600 mg/d, -4.8; 95% CI, -6.22 to -3.28; P = 0.000), with quetiapine monotherapy also showing the highest reduction in HAM-D scores (4 trials: -4.0; 95% CI, -5.0 to -2.9; P = 0.000). All medications except paroxetine, lithium, aripiprazole, and phenelzine significantly improved the ratio of probabilities of response (overall rate, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.22-1.40) and remission (1.32; 95% CI, 1.20-1.45) versus placebo. Variability in efficacy exists between treatments of bipolar depression. Quetiapine and the olanzapine-fluoxetine combination showed the greatest symptomatic improvement. Efficacy considerations will need to be balanced against safety and tolerability of the individual agents. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

17) Calabrese JR, Ketter TA, Youakim JM, Tiller JM, Yang R, Frye MA
Adjunctive armodafinil for major depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept study.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Oct;71(10):1363-70.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

18) Houston JP, Ketter TA, Case M, Bowden C, Degenhardt EK, Jamal HH, Tohen M
Early symptom change and prediction of subsequent remission with olanzapine augmentation in divalproex-resistant bipolar mixed episodes.
J Psychiatr Res. 2011 Feb;45(2):169-73.
Potential predictors of remission in mixed bipolar I disorder were identified using early Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) improvement criteria in divalproex-resistant patients randomized to olanzapine augmentation (olanzapine + divalproex; N = 101) in a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. In a post-hoc analysis, receiver operating characteristics of 1-point decreases in the CGI-S total score after 2, 4, 7, and 14 days were examined as predictors of endpoint (Week 6 or last observation) remission of depression and/or mania as defined by 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-21) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score ?8. Based on a 1-point improvement in CGI-S as a predictor of remission, all odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were statistically significant for depression or mania remission criteria. ORs for mixed symptom remission with a decrease ?1 in CGI-S scores at Day 2 for olanzapine augmentation were (6.727; CI: 2.382, 18.997; p < .001) with negative predictive value = 89.5% and positive predictive value = 44.2%. Changes in HDRS-21 and YMRS individual item scores after 2 days of augmentation as predictors of endpoint remission identified that decreases in HDRS-21 symptom item scores (early, middle, and/or late insomnia; paranoid; agitation; and somatic/gastrointestinal) predicted depressive symptom remission at endpoint, and decreases in YMRS item scores (language-thought disorder and irritability) were associated with manic symptom remission at endpoint. Because remission with augmentation therapy may occur in as few as one in ten individuals who lack very early symptom reduction, lack of early improvement may indicate a need to expediently reassess treatment strategy. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

19) McIntyre RS, Cohen M, Zhao J, Alphs L, Macek TA, Panagides J
Asenapine for long-term treatment of bipolar disorder: a double-blind 40-week extension study.
J Affect Disord. 2010 Nov;126(3):358-65.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

20) Tamayo JM, Zarate CA, Vieta E, Vázquez G, Tohen M
Level of response and safety of pharmacological monotherapy in the treatment of acute bipolar I disorder phases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010 Jul;13(6):813-32.
In recent years, combinations of pharmacological treatments have become common for the treatment of bipolar disorder type I (BP I); however, this practice is usually not evidence-based and rarely considers monotherapy drug regimen (MDR) as an option in the treatment of acute phases of BP I. Therefore, we evaluated comparative data of commonly prescribed MDRs for both manic and depressive phases of BP I. Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the ClinicalStudyResults.org and other data sources were searched from 1949 to March 2009 for placebo and active controlled randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Risk ratios (RRs) for response, remission, and discontinuation rates due to adverse events (AEs), lack of efficacy, or discontinuation due to any cause, and the number needed to treat or harm (NNT or NNH) were calculated for each medication individually and for all evaluable trials combined. The authors included 31 RCTs in the analyses comparing a MDR with placebo or with active treatment for acute mania, and 9 RCTs comparing a MDR with placebo or with active treatment for bipolar depression. According to the collected evidence, most of the MDRs when compared to placebo showed significant response and remission rates in acute mania. In the case of bipolar depression only quetiapine and, to a lesser extent, olanzapine showed efficacy as MDR. Overall, MDRs were well tolerated with low discontinuation rates due to any cause or AE, although AE profiles differed among treatments. We concluded that most MDRs were efficacious and safe in the treatment of manic episodes, but very few MDRs have demonstrated being efficacious for bipolar depressive episodes. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]