Myers Briggs type indicator and mood


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Janowsky DS, Hong E, Morter S, Howe L.
Myers Briggs Type indicator personality profiles in unipolar depressed patients.
World J Biol Psychiatry 2002 Oct;3(4):207-15
"OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed to compare the distribution of Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality types in patients with Unipolar Depression compared to normative data. METHOD: The MBTI divides individuals into four dichotomous types: Extroverted and Introverted, Sensing and Intuitive, Thinking and Feeling, and Judging and Perceiving. This yields eight single-factor and sixteen four-factor types. One-hundred-thirty Unipolar Depressed patients were administered the MBTI-Form F. RESULTS: Unipolar Depressed patients were significantly more often Introverted, Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving single-factor types respectively, and Introverted-Sensing-Feeling-Perceiving, and Introverted-Intuitive-Feeling-Perceiving four-factor types. The male Introverted-Sensing-Feeling-Perceiving four-factor type was the most dramatically over-represented. CONCLUSION: The MBTI effectively discriminates a patient group with Unipolar Depression from a normative population." [Abstract]

Janowsky DS, Morter S, Hong L, Howe L.
Myers Briggs Type Indicator and Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire differences between bipolar patients and unipolar depressed patients.
Bipolar Disord 1999 Dec;1(2):98-108
"OBJECTIVES: The current study was designed to compare personality differences between bipolar patients and unipolar depressed patients, as evaluated on the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). METHODS: A group of bipolar and a group of unipolar depressed patients filled out the MBTI, the TPQ, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the CAGE questionnaire. The two groups were compared with each other as to responses on the above surveys, and subgroups of bipolar depressed and bipolar patients with manic symptoms were also compared. RESULTS: Bipolar patients were found to be significantly more extroverted (p = 0.004) and less judging (p = 0.007) on the MBTI. They were significantly more novelty seeking (p = 0.004) and less harm avoidant (p = 0.002) on the TPQ. Of the above differences, only the TPQ harm avoidance scale appeared strongly linked to the patients' level of depression. CONCLUSION: Significant differences in personality exist between bipolar disorder and unipolar depressed patients." [Abstract]

Janowsky DS, Morter S, Tancer M.
Over-representation of Myers Briggs Type Indicator introversion in social phobia patients.
Depress Anxiety 2000;11(3):121-5
"The purpose of this study is to profile the personalities of patients with social phobia. Sixteen patients with social phobia were compared with a normative population of 55,971, and with 24 hospitalized Major Depressive Disorder inpatients, using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator, a popular personality survey, divides individuals into eight categories: Extroverts versus Introverts, Sensors versus Intuitives, Thinkers versus Feelers, and Judgers versus Perceivers. Social phobia patients were significantly more often Introverts (93.7%) than were subjects in the normative population (46.2%). In addition, using continuous scores, the social phobia patients scored as significantly more introverted than did the patients with Major Depressive Disorder, who also scored as Introverted. Introversion is a major component of social phobia, and this observation may have both etiological and therapeutic significance." [Abstract]

Opt SK, Loffredo DA.
Rethinking communication apprehension: a Myers-Briggs perspective.
J Psychol 2000 Sep;134(5):556-70
"This study is an examination of relationships between Myers-Briggs personality type preferences, based on Jungian theory, and communication apprehension. Results showed that participants who preferred introversion or sensing reported significantly higher levels of communication apprehension in general and across the group, dyadic, meeting, and public contexts than did participants who preferred extraversion or intuition. In addition, participants who preferred feeling reported higher levels of communication anxiety in the public context than those who preferred thinking. Findings support the assumption that communication apprehension is biologically based, suggest that the Myers-Briggs type preference framework offers an alternative way of understanding communication apprehension, and point out the need for new approaches to understanding the phenomenon of communication apprehension." [Abstract]

Harrington R, Loffredo DA.
The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-Briggs type inventory dimensions.
J Psychol 2001 Jul;135(4):439-50
"The study was an investigation of the relationship between psychological well-being, life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the four Myers-Briggs Type Indicator dimensions (MBTI; I. B. Myers & M. H. McCaulley, 1985). The participants were 97 college students (79 women and 18 men whose mean age was 31.4 years). All the students were administered four instruments, the Psychological Well-Being Inventory (C. D. Ryff, 1989), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), the Self-Consciousness Scale-Revised (M. F. Scheier & C. S. Carver, 1985), and the MBTI (Form G Self-Scoring). MANOVAs revealed significant differences on three of the four dimensions of the MBTI with extraverts showing higher psychological well-being and life satisfaction and lower self-consciousness than introverts. Intuition types scored higher in psychological well-being and lower in self-consciousness than Sensing types. Judging types scored higher in psychological well-being than Perceiving types. Correlational analyses showed that most dimensions of psychological well-being were negatively related to self-consciousness. The relationship between life satisfaction and personality variables is discussed." [Abstract]

Wilson MA, Languis ML.
A topographic study of differences in the P300 between introverts and extraverts.
Brain Topogr 1990 Summer;2(4):269-74
"This paper presents results of a study to establish a link between neurocognitive psychophysiological and psychological type data through the investigation of differences in topographic auditory event-related potential (AERP) (P300) patterns in strongly introverted (n = 17) and strongly extraverted ( = 16) high school males as identified by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. Group data files were created for the auditory event related potential task and converted to ASCII form. Amplitude values were evaluated at each scalp site. Kruskal Wallis one way analysis of variance was performed to evaluate group differences. In processing of infrequent, target stimuli, the amplitude of the P300 waveform for introverts was higher than for extraverts. When processing for non-target stimuli was subtracted from target stimuli, statistical differences were found over nine central, parietal, and occipital sites. The findings support and extend theories of biologically-based and bio-psycho-social typology." [Abstract]

Janowsky DS, Morter S, Hong L.
Relationship of Myers Briggs type indicator personality characteristics to suicidality in affective disorder patients.
J Psychiatr Res 2002 Jan-Feb;36(1):33-9
"The current study characterized the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality profiles of 64 suicidal and 30 non-suicidal psychiatric inpatients with affective disorder diagnoses. The MBTI divides individuals categorically into eight personality preferences (Extroverted and Introverted, Sensing and Intuitive, Thinking and Feeling, and Judging and Perceiving). Compared to the group of non-suicidal affective disorder patients, suicidal affective disorder patients were significantly more Introverted and Perceiving using ANCOVA analyses, and significantly more Introverted alone using Chi Square analyses." [Abstract]

Liyi, Morter, Shirley, Howe, Laura
Alcohol Alcohol. 1999 34: 370-377
"The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a popular personality test, was used to profile the personalities of in-patient alcoholics/substance-use disorder patients who had, and those who did not have, a concurrent affective disorder diagnosis. The MBTI divides individuals into eight categories: Extroverts and Introverts, Sensors and Intuitives, Thinkers and Feelers, and Judgers and Perceivers. Alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with no affective disorder differed from a normative population only in being significantly more often Sensing and significantly less often Intuitive single-factor types. The Extroverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Judging four-factor type was also significantly over-represented in this group, compared to a normative population. In contrast, mood-disordered alcohol/substance-use disorder patients were significantly more often Introverted, Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving and significantly less often Extroverted, Intuitive, Thinking, and Judging single-factor types. They were also significantly more often Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving and Introverted/Intuitive/Feeling/Perceiving four-factor types. ‘Pure’ alcohol/ substance-use disorder patients differed from alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with a mood disorder in that they were significantly more often Extroverted and Thinking and significantly less often Introverted and Feeling single-factor types; and significantly less often were an Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving four-factor type. The above results may have psychogenetic, diagnostic, and psychotherapeutic implications." [Abstract/Full Text]

Bouchard TJ Jr, Hur YM.
Genetic and environmental influences on the continuous scales of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: an analysis based on twins reared apart.
J Pers 1998 Apr;66(2):135-49
"The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was administered to a sample of 61 monozygotic twins reared apart (MZA), 49 dizygotic twins reared apart (DZA), and 92 spouses, who participated in the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA) from 1979 to 1995. Twins' scores on the continuous scales were subjected to behavior genetic model-fitting procedures. Extraversion-Introversion and Thinking-Feeling yielded heritabilities of about .60, consisting largely of nonadditive genetic variance. Sensing-Intuition and Judgment-Perception yielded heritabilities of about .40, consisting largely of additive genetic variance. Spouse correlations for three of the four scales were near zero and not statistically significant; one spouse correlation (Sensing-Intuition) was modestly positive and statistically significant." [Abstract]

Spirrison CL, McCarley NG.
Age at earliest reported memory: associations with personality traits, behavioral health, and repression.
Assessment 2001 Sep;8(3):315-22
"The present study examined relationships between the age at earliest memory and the personality traits and behavioral health of 107 undergraduates. Participants answered questions on their earliest memory and completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and a medical history form. Analyses indicated that continuous scores on two MBTI scales (Sensing-Intuition and Judging-Perceiving) were inversely related to age at earliest memory as were participant's self-reported drug and alcohol problems, emotional and psychological symptoms, accident rates, physical symptoms, and satisfaction with health. Respondents who reported first memories at or after 7 years of age (i.e., approximately 1 SD above the mean age at recalled memory) were classified as repressors. Repressors scored in the Sensing and Judging directions on the MBTI and reported significantly fewer emotional symptoms, accidents, psychological symptoms, and less health satisfaction than nonrepressors. Results are consistent with the age at earliest memory and repression literature and support the use of earliest memory age as an index of repression." [Abstract]

Mueller L, Gallahger RM, Steer RA, Ciervo CA.
Increased prevalence of sensing types in men with cluster headaches.
Psychol Rep 2000 Oct;87(2):555-8
"To ascertain whether the percentage of men who suffer with cluster headaches and are classified as sensing types according to Jung's theory of psychological types was comparable to the percentage (74%) of Sensing types that was found by Gallagher, et al. among women who experience migraine headaches, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was administered to 25 male cluster-headache patients. There were 19 (76%) male Sensing types, and this was comparable to the percentage of Sensing types for migrainous women. The results are discussed as supporting previous contentions that Sensing types may be prone to developing psychosomatic symptoms related to stress." [Abstract]

Nordvik H.
Similarity between partners in real and perceived personality traits as measured by the Myers-Briggs type indicator.
Scand J Psychol 1996 Dec;37(4):444-50
"From 90 couples, 90 male and 90 female subjects, two sets of scores on the four personality dimensions measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) were obtained by letting each person answer each item twice, first in the ordinary way and then as he or she believed the partner would answer the item. Correlations between partners' self-reported scores were all close to zero, whereas the correlations between the partner-reported scores and the self-reported scores were high for both males and females and for all the four dimensions measured by the MBTI, thus indicating that partners were not similar in personality traits, but they had a realistic perception of each other. The results support the hypothesis that mating is random in terms of personality traits." [Abstract]

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Recent MBTI Research

1) Guimond S, Massrieh W
Intricate correlation between body posture, personality trait and incidence of body pain: a cross-referential study report.
PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e37450.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

2) Poradzisz M, Kostovich CT, O'Connell D, Lefaiver CA
Preceptors and new graduate nurse orientees: implications of psychological type compatibility.
J Nurses Staff Dev. 2012 May-Jun;28(3):E9-E15.
The relationship between preceptor and new graduate nurse (NGN) orientee can be a critical factor in NGNs' satisfaction with choice of profession and place of employment. A research study was conducted with NGN orientees (n = 218) and preceptors (n = 159) to investigate characteristics of psychological type as determined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Preliminary descriptive data regarding participants' Myers-Briggs Type Indicator characteristics is presented, and suggestions are offered for working with orientees during orientation in both classroom sessions and clinical units. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

3) Meunier GF
MBTI and historical data.
Psychol Rep. 2011 Jun;108(3):813-4.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator presents a model of personality which may be useful for understanding historical personalities, but empirical verification is necessary. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

4) Steele AL, Young S
A descriptive study of Myers-Briggs personality types of professional music educators and music therapists with comparisons to undergraduate majors.
J Music Ther. 2011;48(1):55-73.
The purpose of the current study was to determine personality types and demographic characteristics of professional music educators and music therapists. The researchers also sought to determine if personality types of professionals were consistent with undergraduate majors in those fields and personal characteristics as suggested by The Music Education National Conference (MENC) and the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA). The research of Steele and Young (2008) found strong similarities and some differences between undergraduate music education and music therapy students. The possibility that basic types extend across the life span may strengthen understanding of job satisfaction, stress, burn out and other factors affecting retention. Participants were a voluntary convenience sample of 253 music educators (n=110) and music therapists (n=143). The highest preference for music educators was Extrovert-Intuition-Feeling-Judgment (ENFJ) and the highest preference for music therapists was Introvert-Intuition-Feeling-Judgment (INFJ). The difference in the collective type of each group was their "outlook on life", which was either Extrovert or Introvert. However, both groups were the same in their secondary type functions of "NFJ". A comparison of findings with the Steele and Young (2008) study suggested small changes in personality type over time. Caution must be exercised in generalizing findings; however this descriptive investigation may serve as the basis for future studies, which should help foster a stable work force in these professions. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

5) Smits DW, Verschuren O, Gorter JW, Lindeman E, Jongmans M, Ketelaar M
Perceptions of pediatric physical therapists and physical educators on classifying learning styles of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.
Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2011 Nov;31(4):403-12.
The purpose of this study was to examine professionals' perceptions on classifying learning styles in the context of teaching motor activities to children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). The participants were 21 pediatric physical therapists (PPTs) and seven physical educators (PEs) in three schools for special education in The Netherlands. All participants were introduced to the key descriptions of two existing learning style instruments (Kolb's Learning Style Inventory and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator), applied them to children and adolescents with CP, and reported their perceptions in written surveys. This study had a mixed-methods design. Quantitative and qualitative data analyses showed that PPTs and PEs are mostly positive about the idea of classifying learning styles in the context of teaching motor activities to children and adolescents with CP, giving three main reasons: individual approach, professional communication, and treatment awareness. Additionally, qualitative data analysis showed that the key descriptions of the two learning style instruments were not feasible as classifications for children and adolescents with CP. It is therefore recommended that other learning style classification instruments should be explored and that possibly a new learning style classification instrument should be developed in the context of teaching motor activities to children and adolescents with CP. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

6) Zardouz S, German MA, Wu EC, Djalilian HR
Personality types of otolaryngology resident applicants as described by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011 May;144(5):714-8.
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7) Bell MA, Wales PS, Torbeck LJ, Kunzer JM, Thurston VC, Brokaw JJ
Do personality differences between teachers and learners impact students' evaluations of a surgery clerkship?
J Surg Educ. 2011 May-Jun;68(3):190-3.
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8) Behar-Horenstein LS, Garvan CW, Bowman BJ, Bulosan M, Hancock S, Johnson M, Mutlu B
Cognitive and learning styles as predictors of success on the National Board Dental Examination.
J Dent Educ. 2011 Apr;75(4):534-43.
Using a deidentified retrospective dataset of three cohorts of matriculated dental students, we measured the degree to which selected student attributes, the Learning Type Measure, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and Dental Admission Test subtests scores predicted passage on the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE), Parts I and II. Gender, Myers-Briggs Type Indicators, and the Dental Admission Test subtests for academic average and biology were found to be predictive of passing the NBDE Part I. Gender, a Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (thinking over feeling), and the Dental Admission Test subtests on reading and biology were found to be predictive of passing the NBDE Part II. The Learning Type Measure was not found to be predictive of passing the NBDE Part I or Part II. This study holds implications for heightening faculty members' awareness of students' aptitude and cognitive attributes, for teaching, and for the admissions process. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

9) Needleman HL, Bang S, Zhou J, Johnson JR, McPeek B, Graham D
Personality types of pediatric dentists: comparative analysis and associated factors.
Pediatr Dent. 2011 Jan-Feb;33(1):37-45.
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10) Zitkus BS
The relationship among registered nurses' weight status, weight loss regimens, and successful or unsuccessful weight loss.
J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2011 Feb;23(2):110-6.
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11) Swanson JA, Antonoff MB, D'Cunha J, Maddaus MA
Personality profiling of the modern surgical trainee: insights into generation X.
J Surg Educ. 2010 Nov-Dec;67(6):417-20.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

12) Klinkosz W, Iskra J
Examination of the relations of the Myers-Briggs type indicator and the NEO-4 Personality Inventory in a Polish sample.
Psychol Rep. 2010 Oct;107(2):578-86.
The present study was designed to replicate McCrae and Costa's research findings on the relation of NEO-4 domains with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator scales in a Polish sample of 300 psychology student volunteers (175 women, 125 men). Their mean age was 22.3 yr. (SD = 4.5). Correlations for scores on the MBTI scales with NEO-4 domains ranged from .72 to .02 for Extraversion, from -.60 to -.16 for Openness to experience, from -.56 to -.04 for Agreeableness, and from .55 to -.07 for Conscientiousness. Two domains assessed with the NEO-4 correspond to preferences measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

13) Srivastava S, Ketter TA
The link between bipolar disorders and creativity: evidence from personality and temperament studies.
Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2010 Dec;12(6):522-30.
Although extensive literature supports connections between bipolar disorder and creativity, possible mechanisms underlying such relationships are only beginning to emerge. Herein we review evidence supporting one such possible mechanism, namely that personality/temperament contribute to enhanced creativity in individuals with bipolar disorder, a theory supported by studies showing that certain personality/temperamental traits are not only common to bipolar disorder patients and creative individuals but also correlate with measures of creativity. Thus, we suggest based on studies using three important personality/temperament measures-the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness Personality Inventory (NEO); the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); and the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A)-that changeable (increased TEMPS-A-cyclothymia) and at times negative (increased NEO-neuroticism) affect and open-minded (increased NEO-openness) and intuitive (increased MBTI-intuition) cognition may contribute importantly to enhanced creativity in individuals with bipolar disorder. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

14) Sladek RM, Bond MJ, Phillips PA
Do doctors, nurses and managers have different thinking styles?
Aust Health Rev. 2010 Aug;34(3):375-80.
A study of the preferred thinking styles among senior health professionals is reported. A total of 49 medical consultants, 50 senior nurses and 53 health managers from two public teaching hospitals in Adelaide, Australia, were invited via a personal letter to complete a questionnaire comprising measures of thinking style (the Rational Experiential Inventory) and cognitive style (two dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator). Managers reported a higher preference for 'rational' reasoning than nurses, whereas medical consultants reported a lower preference for 'experiential' reasoning than both managers and nurses. Cognitive style was largely homogenous. Although generalisation of the findings may be limited due to small sample sizes and the self-selection of participants, an understanding of the thinking styles of senior health professionals will likely inform the design and evaluation of future change strategies. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

15) Meeusen VC, Brown-Mahoney C, van Dam K, van Zundert AA, Knape JT
Personality dimensions and their relationship with job satisfaction amongst Dutch nurse anaesthetists.
J Nurs Manag. 2010 Jul;18(5):573-81.
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16) Kong SS
[Relationships between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in clinic couples].
J Korean Acad Nurs. 2010 Jun;40(3):336-48.
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17) Dossey BM
Florence Nightingale: her personality type.
J Holist Nurs. 2010 Mar;28(1):57-67.
This article casts new and refreshing light on Florence Nightingale's life and work by examining her personality type. Using the theory-based Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the author examines Nightingale's personality type and reveals that she was an introverted-intuitive-thinking-judging type. The merit of using the MBTI is that it allows us to more clearly understand three major areas of Nightingale's life that have been partially unacknowledged or misunderstood: her spiritual development as a practicing mystic, her management of her chronic illness to maintain her prodigious work output, and her chosen strategies to transform her visionary ideas into new health care and social realities. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

18) Li YS, Chen HM, Yang BH, Liu CF
An exploratory study of the relationship between age and learning styles among students in different nursing programs in Taiwan.
Nurse Educ Today. 2011 Jan;31(1):18-23.
The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between learning styles and age among nursing students in a two-year, a five-year associate degree of nursing (ADN) program, and a two-year bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) program in Taiwan. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Form M was used to measure individual preferences in four dichotomous dimensions of Jungian theory: extraversion/introversion, sensing/intuition, thinking/feeling, and judging/perceiving. The study sample included 331 nursing students. The analysis of the data revealed that the most common learning styles were introversion, sensing, thinking, and judging (ISTJ) and introversion, sensing, feeling, and judging (ISFJ). The findings indicated that the SJs comprised 43.0% of the participating nursing students. SJs are highly preferred in the field of nursing. However, the ages of nursing students were not significantly related to their learning styles. The findings suggested that the participating nursing students were homogeneous. We recommend the use of a large sample for further studies. The awareness and understanding of individual differences is of great importance in tailoring each learning style to benefit educators and learners, thereby enhancing nursing education. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

19) Hong S, Kang SY, Yoon JU, Kang U, Seong GJ, Kim CY
Drug attitude and adherence to anti-glaucoma medication.
Yonsei Med J. 2010 Mar;51(2):261-9.
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20) Allison H, Hobbs R
Natural resource management at four social scales: psychological type matters.
Environ Manage. 2010 Mar;45(3):590-602.
Understanding organisation at different social scales is crucial to learning how social processes play a role in sustainable natural resource management. Research has neglected the potential role that individual personality plays in decision making in natural resource management. In the past two decades natural resource management across rural Australia has increasingly come under the direct influence of voluntary participatory groups, such as Catchment Management Authorities. The greater complexity of relationships among all stakeholders is a serious management challenge when attempting to align their differing aspirations and values at four social institutional scales-local, regional, state and national. This is an exploratory study on the psychological composition of groups of stakeholders at the four social scales in natural resource management in Australia. This article uses the theory of temperaments and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to investigate the distribution of personality types. The distribution of personality types in decision-making roles in natural resource management was markedly different from the Australian Archive sample. Trends in personality were found across social scales with Stabilizer temperament more common at the local scale and Theorist temperament more common at the national scale. Greater similarity was found at the state and national scales. Two temperaments comprised between 76 and 90% of participants at the local and regional scales, the common temperament type was Stabilizer. The dissimilarity was Improviser (40%) at the local scale and Theorist (29%) at the regional scale. Implications for increasing participation and bridging the gap between community and government are discussed. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]