Janowsky DS, Hong E, Morter S, Howe L.
Type indicator personality profiles in unipolar depressed patients.
J Biol Psychiatry 2002 Oct;3(4):207-15
"OBJECTIVE: The current study was
designed to compare the distribution of Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality
types in patients with Unipolar Depression compared to normative data. METHOD:
The MBTI divides individuals into four dichotomous types: Extroverted and Introverted,
Sensing and Intuitive, Thinking and Feeling, and Judging and Perceiving. This
yields eight single-factor and sixteen four-factor types. One-hundred-thirty Unipolar
Depressed patients were administered the MBTI-Form F. RESULTS: Unipolar Depressed
patients were significantly more often Introverted, Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving
single-factor types respectively, and Introverted-Sensing-Feeling-Perceiving,
and Introverted-Intuitive-Feeling-Perceiving four-factor types. The male Introverted-Sensing-Feeling-Perceiving
four-factor type was the most dramatically over-represented. CONCLUSION: The MBTI
effectively discriminates a patient group with Unipolar Depression from a normative
DS, Morter S, Hong L, Howe L.
Myers Briggs Type Indicator and Tridimensional
Personality Questionnaire differences between bipolar patients and unipolar depressed
Bipolar Disord 1999 Dec;1(2):98-108
The current study was designed to compare personality differences between bipolar
patients and unipolar depressed patients, as evaluated on the Myers Briggs Type
Indicator (MBTI) and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). METHODS:
A group of bipolar and a group of unipolar depressed patients filled out the MBTI,
the TPQ, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the CAGE questionnaire. The two groups
were compared with each other as to responses on the above surveys, and subgroups
of bipolar depressed and bipolar patients with manic symptoms were also compared.
RESULTS: Bipolar patients were found to be significantly more extroverted (p =
0.004) and less judging (p = 0.007) on the MBTI. They were significantly more
novelty seeking (p = 0.004) and less harm avoidant (p = 0.002) on the TPQ. Of
the above differences, only the TPQ harm avoidance scale appeared strongly linked
to the patients' level of depression. CONCLUSION: Significant differences in personality
exist between bipolar disorder and unipolar depressed patients." [Abstract]
Janowsky DS, Morter S, Tancer M.
of Myers Briggs Type Indicator introversion in social phobia patients.
"The purpose of this study is to profile the
personalities of patients with social phobia. Sixteen patients with social phobia
were compared with a normative population of 55,971, and with 24 hospitalized
Major Depressive Disorder inpatients, using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. The
Myers Briggs Type Indicator, a popular personality survey, divides individuals
into eight categories: Extroverts versus Introverts, Sensors versus Intuitives,
Thinkers versus Feelers, and Judgers versus Perceivers. Social phobia patients
were significantly more often Introverts (93.7%) than were subjects in the normative
population (46.2%). In addition, using continuous scores, the social phobia patients
scored as significantly more introverted than did the patients with Major Depressive
Disorder, who also scored as Introverted. Introversion is a major component of
social phobia, and this observation may have both etiological and therapeutic
SK, Loffredo DA.
Rethinking communication apprehension: a Myers-Briggs
J Psychol 2000 Sep;134(5):556-70
study is an examination of relationships between Myers-Briggs personality type
preferences, based on Jungian theory, and communication apprehension. Results
showed that participants who preferred introversion or sensing reported significantly
higher levels of communication apprehension in general and across the group, dyadic,
meeting, and public contexts than did participants who preferred extraversion
or intuition. In addition, participants who preferred feeling reported higher
levels of communication anxiety in the public context than those who preferred
thinking. Findings support the assumption that communication apprehension is biologically
based, suggest that the Myers-Briggs type preference framework offers an alternative
way of understanding communication apprehension, and point out the need for new
approaches to understanding the phenomenon of communication apprehension."
R, Loffredo DA.
The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness,
and the Myers-Briggs type inventory dimensions.
"The study was an investigation of the relationship
between psychological well-being, life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the
four Myers-Briggs Type Indicator dimensions (MBTI; I. B. Myers & M. H. McCaulley,
1985). The participants were 97 college students (79 women and 18 men whose mean
age was 31.4 years). All the students were administered four instruments, the
Psychological Well-Being Inventory (C. D. Ryff, 1989), the Satisfaction With Life
Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), the Self-Consciousness
Scale-Revised (M. F. Scheier & C. S. Carver, 1985), and the MBTI (Form G Self-Scoring).
MANOVAs revealed significant differences on three of the four dimensions of the
MBTI with extraverts showing higher psychological well-being and life satisfaction
and lower self-consciousness than introverts. Intuition types scored higher in
psychological well-being and lower in self-consciousness than Sensing types. Judging
types scored higher in psychological well-being than Perceiving types. Correlational
analyses showed that most dimensions of psychological well-being were negatively
related to self-consciousness. The relationship between life satisfaction and
personality variables is discussed." [Abstract]
Wilson MA, Languis ML.
study of differences in the P300 between introverts and extraverts.
Topogr 1990 Summer;2(4):269-74
"This paper presents results of a study
to establish a link between neurocognitive psychophysiological and psychological
type data through the investigation of differences in topographic auditory event-related
potential (AERP) (P300) patterns in strongly introverted (n = 17) and strongly
extraverted ( = 16) high school males as identified by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator.
Group data files were created for the auditory event related potential task and
converted to ASCII form. Amplitude values were evaluated at each scalp site. Kruskal
Wallis one way analysis of variance was performed to evaluate group differences.
In processing of infrequent, target stimuli, the amplitude of the P300 waveform
for introverts was higher than for extraverts. When processing for non-target
stimuli was subtracted from target stimuli, statistical differences were found
over nine central, parietal, and occipital sites. The findings support and extend
theories of biologically-based and bio-psycho-social typology." [Abstract]
Janowsky DS, Morter S, Hong L.
of Myers Briggs type indicator personality characteristics to suicidality in affective
J Psychiatr Res 2002 Jan-Feb;36(1):33-9
current study characterized the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality
profiles of 64 suicidal and 30 non-suicidal psychiatric inpatients with affective
disorder diagnoses. The MBTI divides individuals categorically into eight personality
preferences (Extroverted and Introverted, Sensing and Intuitive, Thinking and
Feeling, and Judging and Perceiving). Compared to the group of non-suicidal affective
disorder patients, suicidal affective disorder patients were significantly more
Introverted and Perceiving using ANCOVA analyses, and significantly more Introverted
alone using Chi Square analyses." [Abstract]
Morter, Shirley, Howe, Laura
UNDERLYING PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
ALCOHOL/SUBSTANCE-USE DISORDER PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT AN AFFECTIVE DISORDER
Alcohol. 1999 34: 370-377
"The MyersBriggs Type Indicator (MBTI),
a popular personality test, was used to profile the personalities of in-patient
alcoholics/substance-use disorder patients who had, and those who did not have,
a concurrent affective disorder diagnosis. The MBTI divides individuals into eight
categories: Extroverts and Introverts, Sensors and Intuitives, Thinkers and Feelers,
and Judgers and Perceivers. Alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with no affective
disorder differed from a normative population only in being significantly more
often Sensing and significantly less often Intuitive single-factor types. The
Extroverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Judging four-factor type was also significantly over-represented
in this group, compared to a normative population. In contrast, mood-disordered
alcohol/substance-use disorder patients were significantly more often Introverted,
Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving and significantly less often Extroverted, Intuitive,
Thinking, and Judging single-factor types. They were also significantly more often
Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving and Introverted/Intuitive/Feeling/Perceiving
four-factor types. Pure alcohol/ substance-use disorder patients differed
from alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with a mood disorder in that they
were significantly more often Extroverted and Thinking and significantly less
often Introverted and Feeling single-factor types; and significantly less often
were an Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving four-factor type. The above results
may have psychogenetic, diagnostic, and psychotherapeutic implications."
Bouchard TJ Jr, Hur YM.
and environmental influences on the continuous scales of the Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator: an analysis based on twins reared apart.
"The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was administered
to a sample of 61 monozygotic twins reared apart (MZA), 49 dizygotic twins reared
apart (DZA), and 92 spouses, who participated in the Minnesota Study of Twins
Reared Apart (MISTRA) from 1979 to 1995. Twins' scores on the continuous scales
were subjected to behavior genetic model-fitting procedures. Extraversion-Introversion
and Thinking-Feeling yielded heritabilities of about .60, consisting largely of
nonadditive genetic variance. Sensing-Intuition and Judgment-Perception yielded
heritabilities of about .40, consisting largely of additive genetic variance.
Spouse correlations for three of the four scales were near zero and not statistically
significant; one spouse correlation (Sensing-Intuition) was modestly positive
and statistically significant." [Abstract]
CL, McCarley NG.
Age at earliest reported memory: associations with
personality traits, behavioral health, and repression.
"The present study examined relationships between
the age at earliest memory and the personality traits and behavioral health of
107 undergraduates. Participants answered questions on their earliest memory and
completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and a medical history form. Analyses
indicated that continuous scores on two MBTI scales (Sensing-Intuition and Judging-Perceiving)
were inversely related to age at earliest memory as were participant's self-reported
drug and alcohol problems, emotional and psychological symptoms, accident rates,
physical symptoms, and satisfaction with health. Respondents who reported first
memories at or after 7 years of age (i.e., approximately 1 SD above the mean age
at recalled memory) were classified as repressors. Repressors scored in the Sensing
and Judging directions on the MBTI and reported significantly fewer emotional
symptoms, accidents, psychological symptoms, and less health satisfaction than
nonrepressors. Results are consistent with the age at earliest memory and repression
literature and support the use of earliest memory age as an index of repression."
Mueller L, Gallahger RM, Steer RA, Ciervo CA.
prevalence of sensing types in men with cluster headaches.
Psychol Rep 2000 Oct;87(2):555-8
"To ascertain whether the percentage
of men who suffer with cluster headaches and are classified as sensing types according
to Jung's theory of psychological types was comparable to the percentage (74%)
of Sensing types that was found by Gallagher, et al. among women who experience
migraine headaches, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator was administered to 25 male
cluster-headache patients. There were 19 (76%) male Sensing types, and this was
comparable to the percentage of Sensing types for migrainous women. The results
are discussed as supporting previous contentions that Sensing types may be prone
to developing psychosomatic symptoms related to stress." [Abstract]
Similarity between partners
in real and perceived personality traits as measured by the Myers-Briggs type
Scand J Psychol 1996 Dec;37(4):444-50
90 couples, 90 male and 90 female subjects, two sets of scores on the four personality
dimensions measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) were obtained by
letting each person answer each item twice, first in the ordinary way and then
as he or she believed the partner would answer the item. Correlations between
partners' self-reported scores were all close to zero, whereas the correlations
between the partner-reported scores and the self-reported scores were high for
both males and females and for all the four dimensions measured by the MBTI, thus
indicating that partners were not similar in personality traits, but they had
a realistic perception of each other. The results support the hypothesis that
mating is random in terms of personality traits." [Abstract]