serotonin 5-HT1E receptors


Attention Valued Visitor: A Drug Reference Page for FDA Approved General Anesthetics is now available!
Shawn Thomas ( is working to summarize the mechanisms of action of every drug approved by the FDA for a brain- related condition. In addition, new pages with more automated content will soon replace some of the older pages on the web site. If you have suggestions about content that you would like to see, e-mail if you have anything at all to share.



(Updated 7/19/04)

Clawges HM, Depree KM, Parker EM, Graber SG.
Human 5-HT1 receptor subtypes exhibit distinct G protein coupling behaviors in membranes from Sf9 cells.
Biochemistry 1997 Oct 21;36(42):12930-8
"The G protein coupling behavior of four human 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor subtypes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, and 5-HT1E) has been studied in membranes from Sf9 cells expressing the individual receptors. The 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors exhibited both high- and low-affinity states for agonist, with the majority of the receptors in a low-affinity state. Addition of purified G protein subunits to membranes expressing either 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptors shifted the majority of the receptors to a high-affinity state in the absence, but not in the presence, of guanine nucleotides. The alphai1, alphai2, alphai3, and alphao subunits were able to shift the receptors to a high-affinity state with either betagammabrain or betagammaretina while alphat subunits were inactive regardless of which betagamma preparation was used. A significantly higher affinity for agonist was observed with both receptors in the presence of alphai3 subunits compared with either alphai2 or alphao subunits, while a significantly lower concentration of alpha subunits was required for a maximal affinity shift of 5-HT1A receptors compared with 5-HT1B receptors (EC50 values of 6.4 and 12. 0 nM, respectively). The 5-HT1D and 5-HT1E receptors exhibited only a single affinity state for agonist. Addition of purified G protein subunits to membranes containing 5-HT1D receptors caused a small increase in affinity for agonist that was only partially reversed by guanine nucleotides while the addition of purified G protein subunits to membranes containing 5-HT1E receptors had no affect on agonist binding. Thus when expressed in an identical membrane environment these four closely related 5-HT1 receptor subtypes exhibit different G protein coupling behaviors." [Abstract]

Parker EM, Izzarelli DG, Lewis-Higgins L, Palmer D, Shapiro RA.
Two amino acid differences in the sixth transmembrane domain are partially responsible for the pharmacological differences between the 5-HT1D beta and 5-HT1E 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors.
J Neurochem 1996 Nov;67(5):2096-103
"5-Hydroxytryptamine elicits its physiological effects by interacting with a diverse group of receptors. Two of these receptors, the 5-HT1D beta and the 5-HT1E receptors, are approximately 60% identical in the transmembrane domains that presumably form the ligand binding site yet have very different pharmacological properties. Analysis of the pharmacological properties of a series of chimeric 5-HT1D beta/5-HT1E receptors indicates that sequences in the sixth and seventh transmembrane domains are responsible for the differential affinity of 5-carboxamidotryptamine for these two receptors. More detailed analysis shows that two amino acid differences in the sixth transmembrane domain (Ile333 and Ser334 in the 5-HT1D beta receptor, corresponding to Lys310 and Glu311 in the 5-HT1E receptor) are largely responsible for the differential affinities of some, but not all, ligands for the 5-HT1D beta and 5-HT1E receptors. It is likely that these two amino acids subtly determine the overall three-dimensional structure of the receptor rather than interact directly with individual ligands." [Abstract]

Dukat M, Smith C, Herrick-Davis K, Teitler M, Glennon RA.
Binding of tryptamine analogs at h5-HT1E receptors: a structure-affinity investigation.
Bioorg Med Chem. 2004 May 15;12(10):2545-52.
"Structure-affinity requirements for the binding of serotonin (5-HT) analogs at human 5-HT1E receptors were investigated by examining the affinities of >40 tryptamine-related compounds. No tryptamine analog was found to bind with substantially higher affinity than 5-HT. The results indicate that hydrogen bonding plays a key role in the 5-HT1E/receptor interaction. This finding was supported using quantitative structure-activity analysis (QSAR) techniques such as comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and the program QsarIS." [Abstract]

Shimron-Abarbanell D, Nothen MM, Erdmann J, Propping P.
Lack of genetically determined structural variants of the human serotonin-1E (5-HT1E) receptor protein points to its evolutionary conservation.
Brain Res Mol Brain Res 1995 Apr;29(2):387-90
"Using single strand conformational analysis, we screened the complete coding sequence of the serotonin-1E (5-HT1E) receptor gene for the presence of DNA sequence variation in a sample of 157 unrelated individuals. We detected only a silent C-->T transition at the third position of codon 177. The lack of significant mutations leading to structural variants of the human 5-HT1E receptor protein points to a high evolutionary conservation of this receptor protein." [Abstract]

Adham N, Vaysse PJ, Weinshank RL, Branchek TA.
The cloned human 5-HT1E receptor couples to inhibition and activation of adenylyl cyclase via two distinct pathways in transfected BS-C-1 cells.
Neuropharmacology 1994 Mar-Apr;33(3-4):403-10
"The pharmacological profile of coupling of the cloned human serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine] (5-HT)1E receptors to second messengers was studied in African green monkey kidney cells (BS-C-1). At low concentrations (0.1-100 nM), 5-HT inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation (FSCA) by up to 90% whereas at higher concentrations it potentiated FSCA; potentiation was dependent on receptor density. Pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin (PTx) or cholera toxin (CTx) eliminated agonist-induced inhibition and potentiation of FSCA, respectively. The potentiation of FSCA was not due to activation of phospholipase C and/or phospholipase A2 since 5-HT had no effect on inositol phosphate release, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization or arachidonic acid mobilization; neither was it affected by pretreatment with the nonselective phospholipase A2 inhibitor, quinacrine, or by the removal of extracellular Ca2+. The pharmacological profiles of the 5-HT1E receptor-mediated inhibition and potentiation of FSCA were very similar, although agonists displayed higher affinity for the former. These results indicate that the human 5-HT1E receptors can potentially couple, with similar pharmacological profiles, to multiple effector pathways. However, the potency and intrinsic activity of the compounds eliciting these responses can differ significantly, depending on the receptor density and the effector pathway studied." [Abstract]

Bai F, Yin T, Johnstone EM, Su C, Varga G, Little SP, Nelson DL.
Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of the guinea pig 5-HT1E receptor.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Jan 26;484(2-3):127-39.
"The human 5-HT(1E) receptor gene was cloned more than a decade ago. Little is known about its function, and there have been no reports of its existence in the genome of small laboratory animals. In this study, attempts to clone the 5-HT(1E) gene from the rat and mouse were unsuccessful. In fact, a search of the mouse genome database revealed that the 5-HT(1E) receptor gene is missing from the mouse genome. However, the 5-HT(1E) gene was cloned from guinea pig genomic DNA and was characterized. The guinea pig 5-HT(1E) receptor gene encodes a protein of 365 amino acids. It shares 88% (nucleic acid) and 95% (amino acid) homology with the human receptor. The guinea pig 5-HT(1E) receptor showed similar pharmacology to the human 5-HT(1E) receptor in radioligand binding assays. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) dose-dependently stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding to the guinea pig 5-HT(1E) receptor with an EC(50) of 13.6+/-1.92 nM, similar to that of the human 5-HT(1E) receptor (13.7+/-1.78 nM). Activation of the guinea pig 5-HT(1E) receptor was also achieved by ergonovine, alpha-methyl-5-HT, 1-naphthylpiperazine, methysergide, tryptamine, and 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI). Methiothepin exhibited antagonist activity. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that 5-HT(1E) mRNA was present in the guinea pig brain with the greatest abundance in the hippocampus, followed by the olfactory bulb. Lower levels were detected in the cortex, thalamus, pons, hypothalamus, midbrain, striatum, and cerebellum. Our current study marks the first identification of the 5-HT(1E) receptor gene in a commonly used laboratory animal species. This finding should allow the elucidation of the receptor's role(s) in the complex coordination of central serotonergic effects." [Abstract]

Bruinvels AT, Landwehrmeyer B, Gustafson EL, Durkin MM, Mengod G, Branchek TA, Hoyer D, Palacios JM.
Localization of 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D alpha, 5-HT1E and 5-HT1F receptor messenger RNA in rodent and primate brain.
Neuropharmacology 1994 Mar-Apr;33(3-4):367-86
"In situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) was used to study the distribution of various 5-HT1 receptor messenger RNAs (mRNA) in the mammalian nervous system. Since the cDNAs encoding the different 5-HT1 receptors, have not been cloned in one single species, brains of the species appropriate for the 5-HT1 receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) have been used. Thus, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D alpha mRNA were determined in rat and mouse brain, while 5-HT1E and 5-HT1F mRNA were studied in human (and monkey) and guinea-pig brain, respectively. 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D alpha hybridization signals were predominantly present in caudate-putamen and cortical areas; in addition, 5-HT1B mRNA was also detected in hippocampus, cerebellum and cerebral arteries. In general, the distribution of 5-HT1B mRNA was characterized by high densities, whereas 5-HT1D alpha mRNA was expressed at very low levels. Comparison of the localization of the mRNAs to the regional distributions of the 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D binding sites in rat brain (described in a previous study), revealed that both receptor subtypes could be putative presynaptic heteroreceptors, modulating the release of various neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. The mRNA encoding the recently cloned 5-HT1E receptor, which has low affinity for the 5-HT1 receptor ligand 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), was localized in human brain. It was found to be present in cortical areas, caudate, putamen and amygdala, areas known to contain 5-CT insensitive 5-HT1 binding sites. The regional distribution of the 5-HT1F mRNA was determined in guinea-pig brain: high densities were observed in various cortical areas, the hippocampal formation and claustrum, which are regions known to contain 5-CT insensitive 5-HT1 or non 5-HT1A/1B/IC/ID [3H]5-HT binding sites. Altogether, this ISHH study describes the distribution of mRNAs of recently cloned 5-HT1 receptors in rodent and primate brain and compares these results to the distribution of the heterogeneous population of 5-HT1 binding sites." [Abstract]

Pierce PA, Xie GX, Meuser T, Peroutka SJ.
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor subtype messenger RNAs in human dorsal root ganglia: a polymerase chain reaction study.
Neuroscience 1997 Dec;81(3):813-9
"Although serotonin has been shown to play an important role in peripheral pain mechanisms, the specific subtypes of serotonin receptors involved in pain and hyperalgesia remain poorly understood. To date, no previous study has attempted to determine the presence of any serotonin receptor subtype in human dorsal root ganglia. In this study, the presence of messenger RNA for eight human serotonin receptor subtypes in lumbar dorsal root ganglia was detected using the method of polymerase chain reaction. Dorsal root ganglia were excised post mortem from four patients. Oligonucleotide primers were chosen based on unique regions of complimentary DNA sequence for eight cloned human serotonin receptor subtypes (i.e. 5-HT1A, 5-HT1D alpha, 5-HT1D beta, 5-HT1E, 5-HT1F, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and 5-HT7). The presence of 5-HT1D alpha, 5-HT1D beta, 5-HT1E, 5-HT1F, 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptor subtype messenger RNA was detected in dorsal root ganglia from three of the four subjects. 5-HT1A receptor subtype messenger RNA was detected in one of the four subjects. No 5-HT2C receptor subtype messenger RNA could be detected. Findings from this study may direct further efforts to determine the role of serotonin receptors in the peripheral nervous system." [Abstract]

Pranzatelli MR, Galvan I, Tailor PT.
Human brainstem serotonin receptors: characterization and implications for subcortical myoclonus.
Clin Neuropharmacol 1996 Dec;19(6):507-14
"The immediate serotonin (5-HT) precursor, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (L-5-HTP), is an investigational treatment for myoclonic disorders. Its mechanism of action in humans is incompletely understood. We measured the density of subtypes of 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors and the affinity of 5-HT and L-5-HTP in vitro in the human brainstem and cortex, regions associated with subcortical and cortical myoclonus, respectively. In the cortex, the rank order of 5-HT receptor subtype Bmax was 5-HT2A (low-affinity), 5-HT1A, 5-HT uptake sites, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2C, 5-HT1E/F, and 5-HT2A (high-affinity) sites. In the brainstem, the rank order was 5-HT uptake sites, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2C, 5-HT1A, and 5-HT2A(L) sites. Specific binding at 5-HT1E/F and high-affinity 5-HT2A sites was too low for characterization. In competition studies, 5-HT had high affinity for 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C sites in the brainstem and cortex, but L-5-HTP was > 1,000-fold less active. These data support the hypothesis that in humans L-5-HTP stimulates 5-HT receptors in the CNS only after conversion to 5-HT. They also indicate in the human brainstem a prominence of 5-HT1A sites and paucity of 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E/F, and 5-HT2A sites, which has implications for brainstem-mediated myoclonus and response to serotonergic drugs." [Abstract]

Levy FO, Holtgreve-Grez H, Tasken K, Solberg R, Ried T, Gudermann T.
Assignment of the gene encoding the 5-HT1E serotonin receptor (S31) (locus HTR1E) to human chromosome 6q14-q15.
Genomics 1994 Aug;22(3):637-40 [Abstract]

Stanton JA, Middlemiss DN, Beer MS.
Autoradiographic localization of 5-CT-insensitive 5-HT1-like recognition sites in guinea pig and rat brain.
Neuropharmacology 1996 Feb;35(2):223-9
"Quantitative autoradiographic studies, with [3H]5-HT, were used to investigate the distribution of 5-CT-insensitive 5-HT1-like (5-HT1E/1F) recognition sites in rat and guinea pig brain. For comparison and control purposes the distribution of the closely related 5-HT1D binding site, which is abundant in the guinea pig but not the rat, was also investigated, as well as total specific [3H]5-HT binding. Results from this study confirm the previously described regional distribution of the 5-HT1D binding site and also revealed a predominance of 5-CT-insensitive 5-HT1-like 5-HT1E/1F) recognition sites in the olfactory tubercle, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens and substantia nigra of both species. Interestingly 5-CT-insensitive 5-HT1-like (5-HT1E/1F) recognition sites were particularly dense in the claustrum of the guinea pig, but not the rat." [Abstract]

->Back to Home<-

Recent 5-HT1E Receptor Research

1) Klein M, Teitler M
Distribution of 5-ht(1E) receptors in the mammalian brain and cerebral vasculature: an immunohistochemical and pharmacological study.
Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Jun;166(4):1290-302.
[PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

2) Klein MT, Dukat M, Glennon RA, Teitler M
Toward selective drug development for the human 5-hydroxytryptamine 1E receptor: a comparison of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1E and 1F receptor structure-affinity relationships.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011 Jun;337(3):860-7.
The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 1E receptor is highly expressed in the human frontal cortex and hippocampus, and this distribution suggests the function of 5-HT(1E) receptors might be linked to memory. To test this hypothesis, behavioral experiments are needed. Because rats and mice lack a 5-HT(1E) receptor gene, knockout strategies cannot be used to elucidate this receptor's functions. Thus, selective pharmacological tools must be developed. The tryptamine-related agonist BRL54443 [5-hydroxy-3-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-1H-indole] is one of the few agents that binds 5-HT(1E) receptors with high affinity and some selectively; unfortunately, it binds equally well to 5-HT(1F) receptors (K(i) ? 1 nM). The differences between tryptamine binding requirements of these two receptor populations have never been extensively explored; this must be done to guide the design of analogs with greater selectivity for 5-HT(1E) receptors versus 5-HT(1F) receptors. Previously, we determined the receptor binding affinities of a large series of tryptamine analogs at the 5-HT(1E) receptor; we now examine the affinities of this same series of compounds at 5-HT(1F) receptors. The affinities of these compounds at 5-HT(1E) and 5-HT(1F) receptors were found to be highly correlated (r = 0.81). All high-affinity compounds were full agonists at both receptor populations. We identified 5-N-butyryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine as a novel 5-HT(1F) receptor agonist with >60-fold selectivity versus 5-HT(1E) receptors. There is significant overlap between 5-HT(1E) and 5-HT(1F) receptor orthosteric binding properties; thus, identification of 5-HT(1E)-selective orthosteric ligands will be difficult. The insights generated from this study will inform future drug development and molecular modeling studies for both 5-HT(1E) and 5-HT(1F) receptors. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

3) Granados-Soto V, Argüelles CF, Rocha-González HI, Godínez-Chaparro B, Flores-Murrieta FJ, Villalón CM
The role of peripheral 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E and 5-HT1F serotonergic receptors in the reduction of nociception in rats.
Neuroscience. 2010 Jan 20;165(2):561-8.
This study assessed the possible antinociceptive role of peripheral 5-HT(1) receptor subtypes in the rat formalin test. Rats were injected into the dorsum of the hind paw with 50 microl of diluted formalin (1%). Nociceptive behavior was quantified as the number of flinches of the injected paw. Reduction of flinching was considered as antinociception. Ipsilateral, but not contralateral, peripheral administration of the 5-HT(1) receptor agonists R(+)-UH-301 (5-HT(1A); 0.1-3 microg/paw), CGS-12066A (5-HT(1B); 0.01-0.3 microg/paw), GR46611 (5-HT(1B/1D); 0.3-10 microg/paw), BRL54443 (5-HT(1E/1F); 3-300 microg/paw) or LY344864 (5-HT(1F); 3-300 microg/paw) significantly reduced formalin-induced flinching. The corresponding vehicle was devoid of any effect by itself. The local antinociceptive effect of R(+)-UH-301 (0.3 microg/paw) was significantly reduced by WAY-100635 (30-100 microg/paw; a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist). Moreover, the antagonists GR55562 (30-100 microg/paw; 5-HT(1B/D)) or SB224289 (30-100 microg/paw; 5-HT(1B)) dose-dependently reduced the antinociceptive effect of CGS-12066A (0.3 microg/paw) whereas GR55562 (30-100 microg/paw) or BRL15572 (30-100 microg/paw, 5-HT(1D)) reduced the antinociceptive effect of GR46611 (0.3 microg/paw). Interestingly, the effects of BRL54443 and LY344864 (300 microg/paw each) were partially reduced by methiothepin, but not by the highest doses of WAY-100635, SB224289 or BRL15572. The above antagonists did not produce any effect by themselves. These results suggest that peripheral activation of the 5-HT(1A,) 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(1F) and, probably, 5-HT(1E) receptor subtypes leads to antinociception in the rat formalin test. Thus, the use of selective 5-HT(1) receptor agonists could be a therapeutic strategy to reduce inflammatory pain. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

4) Klein MT, Teitler M
Guinea pig hippocampal 5-HT(1E) receptors: a tool for selective drug development.
J Neurochem. 2009 Apr;109(1):268-74.
Recent studies have indicated that the serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] 1E receptor, originally discovered in human brain tissue, is not expressed in rat or mouse brain. Thus, there have been few reports on 5-HT(1E) receptor drug development. However, expression of 5-HT(1E) receptor mRNA has been shown in guinea pig brain. To establish this species as an animal model for 5-HT(1E) drug development, we identified brain regions that exhibit 5-carboxyamidotryptamine, ritanserin, and LY344864 - insensitive [(3)H]5-HT binding (characteristic of the 5-HT(1E) receptor). In hippocampal homogenates, where 5-HT(1E) receptor density was sufficiently high for radioligand binding analysis, 100 nM 5-carboxyamidotryptamine, 30 nM ritanserin, and 100 nM LY344864 were used to mask [(3)H]5-HT binding at non-5-HT(1E) receptors. The K(d) of [(3)H]5-HT was 5.7 +/- 0.7 nM and is indistinguishable from the cloned receptor K(d) of 6.5 +/- 0.6 nM. The affinities of 16 drugs for the cloned and hippocampal-expressed guinea pig 5-HT(1E) receptors are essentially identical (R(2) = 0.97). These findings indicate that using these conditions autoradiographical distribution and signal transduction studies of the 5-HT(1E) receptor in guinea pig brain are feasible. Using the guinea pig as an animal model should provide important insights into possible functions of this receptor and the therapeutic potential of selective human 5-HT(1E) drugs. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

5) Jensen NH, Rodriguiz RM, Caron MG, Wetsel WC, Rothman RB, Roth BL
N-desalkylquetiapine, a potent norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and partial 5-HT1A agonist, as a putative mediator of quetiapine's antidepressant activity.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Sep;33(10):2303-12.
Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is also US FDA approved for treating bipolar depression, albeit by an unknown mechanism. To discover the potential mechanism for this apparently unique action, we screened quetiapine, its metabolite N-Desalkylquetiapine, and dibenzo[b,f][1,4]thiazepine-11(10-H)-one (DBTO) against a large panel of G-protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, and neurotransmitter transporters. DBTO was inactive at all tested molecular targets. N-Desalkylquetiapine had a high affinity (3.4 nM) for the histamine H(1) receptor and moderate affinities (10-100 nM) for the norepinephrine reuptake transporter (NET), the serotonin 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1E), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), 5-HT(7) receptors, the alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor, and the M(1), M(3), and M(5) muscarinic receptors. The compound had low affinities (100-1000 nM) for the 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(2C), 5-HT(3), 5-HT(5), 5-HT(6), alpha(1A), alpha(2A), alpha(2B), alpha(2C), H(2), M(2), M(4), and dopamine D(1), D(2), D(3), and D(4) receptors. N-Desalkylquetiapine potently inhibited human NE transporter with a K(i) of 12 nM, about 100-fold more potent than quetiapine itself. N-Desalkylquetiapine was also 10-fold more potent and more efficacious than quetiapine at the 5-HT(1A) receptor. N-Desalkylquetiapine was an antagonist at 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), 5-HT(2C), alpha(1A), alpha(1D), alpha(2A), alpha(2C), H(1), M(1), M(3), and M(5) receptors. In the mouse tail suspension test, N-Desalkylquetiapine displayed potent antidepressant-like activity in VMAT2 heterozygous mice at doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg. These data strongly suggest that the antidepressant activity of quetiapine is mediated, at least in part, by its metabolite N-Desalkylquetiapine through NET inhibition and partial 5-HT(1A) agonism. Possible contributions of this metabolite to the side effects of quetiapine are discussed. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

6) Bojarski AJ
Pharmacophore models for metabotropic 5-HT receptor ligands.
Curr Top Med Chem. 2006;6(18):2005-26.
An overview of pharmacophore models, developed for different subtypes of serotonin receptors belonging to the GPCR family, is presented. Starting with early models for 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptor ligands, and ending with the latest ones for 5-HT6- and 5-HT7 receptors, as many as fifty others are briefly summarized. No models have been developed for 5-HT1F-, 5-HT2B- and 5-HT5B receptor ligands, and in the case of 5-HT1E- and 5-HT5A Rs only single pilot studies with non-selective tryptamine derivatives are reported. For all the other subtypes of 5-HTRs, various pharmacophore hypotheses--either qualitative and/or quantitative--are characterized by sets of ligands used for their generation, a templates for alignment, the computational methods applied and, eventually, interfeature distances and/or statistical results--if available. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

7) Yang GB, Qiu CL, Zhao H, Liu Q, Shao Y
Expression of mRNA for multiple serotonin (5-HT) receptor types/subtypes by the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rhesus macaques.
J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Sep;178(1-2):24-9.
To find out whether rhesus macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) express mRNA for 5-HT receptors, blood samples from normal healthy rhesus monkeys were used to isolate PBMCs by Ficoll-paque density gradient centrifugation. Total RNA was extracted from MT-2 cells, Hut-78 cells, naive or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated human and monkey PBMCs. One tube RT-PCR was performed using primers specific for human 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1E, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors. Amplicons of expected sizes were obtained from human cell lines as well as both human and monkey PBMCs. Both PHA stimulated human and monkey PBMCs express mRNAs for 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1E, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT6 receptor types/subtypes. However, mRNAs for 5-HT1B, 5-HT1E and 5-HT2A cannot be confidently detected in some of the PBMC samples without PHA stimulation. 5-HT2B and 5-HT7 receptor mRNA was not detected in most of the samples and 5-HT2C receptor mNRA was not detected at all. FACS analysis revealed that CD3+ lymphocyte increased more than 20% among lymphocytes in the PHA stimulated PBMCs. These data indicate that similar to human PBMC, rhesus macaque PBMC may express multiple types of 5-HT receptors and the expression profile could change after PHA stimulation due to either the changes in cell composition or changes in gene transcription level. This provided a basis for further studies on the neuroimmunomodulatory interactions of 5-HT in rhesus macaques. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]

8) Liu XY, Wu SX, Wang YY, Wang W, Zhou L, Li YQ
Changes of 5-HT receptor subtype mRNAs in rat dorsal root ganglion by bee venom-induced inflammatory pain.
Neurosci Lett. 2005 Feb 25;375(1):42-6.
The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was used to examine the changes of the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors in the rat lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) following subcutaneous bee venom (BV) injection into the plantar surface of the unilateral hindpaw. In the DRG ipsilateral to the BV injection, significant increase of mRNA levels of 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(3) receptor subtypes were observed at 1 and 4h after the BV injection, while increase of 5-HT(2C), 5-HT(4), 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7) receptor subtype mRNAs was detected at 4h only. No such changes were observed in the expressions of 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(1F) and 5-HT(5A) receptor subtype mRNAs. Upregulation of 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(2A) receptor subtype mRNAs was also observed in the contralateral DRG at 4 h. The presence of 5-HT(1E), 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(5B) receptor subtype mRNAs was not detected in the rat DRG. The present results suggest that different sets of 5-HT receptor subtypes work at different stages of the inflammatory pain induced by subcutaneous BV injection. [PubMed Citation] [Order full text from Infotrieve]